Manufacturihng of heavy rings and large copper canisters by plastic deformation

by Ssemakula, Hamzah

Abstract (Summary)
Plastic deformation processes transform material fromas-received state to products meeting certain requirements inproperties, microstructure and shape. To achieve thistransformation, the relationship between material response andprocess conditions should be understood. This is usuallycomplicated by the complex conditions describing the actualprocess. Numerous techniques including empirical, physical,analytical and numerical can be employed.In this thesis, numerical technique supported by lab- andfull-scale experiments has been employed to analyse the formingparameters. The first part of the thesis is focused on the useof such parameters to predict occurrence of material poresduring manufacturing of bearing rings. The second part dealswith the influence of forming parameters on the grain sizeduring fabrication of large copper canisters for encapsulationof nuclear waste. The primary task has been to study with thehelp of commercial FE-codes the magnitude and distribution offorming parameters such as accumulated effective strain,temperature, instantaneous hydrostatic pressure and materialflow at different stages of the forming process. In the firstpart, two types of ring manufacturing routes, which result inpore free and pore loaded rings are studied and compared.Material elements located in different areas of the workpiecehave been traced throughout the process. Results of theaccumulated strain and instant hydrostatic pressure have beenanalysed and presented in pressure-strain space. It?sassumed that high hydrostatic pressures together with higheffective strains are favourable for pore closure. Area of theworkpiece with unfavourable parameters have been identified andcompared with ultrasonic test results. Good agreement has beenobtained. Based on the results of this analysis, a new conceptfor avoiding pores in manufacturing of yet heavier rings hasbeen presented. The concept proposes a lighter upsetting in theinitial stage of the process and a more efficient piercingwhich results in higher hydrostatic pressure and bigger andbetter distributed effective strain.In the second part of the thesis, the influence of formingparameters such as effective strain and temperature on thefinal grain size of the product has been studied in laboratoryscale. As-cast billets of cylindrical shape were extruded atdifferent temperatures and reductions. It has been shown thatthe grain size in the final product should be small in order toenable ultrasonic tests and to guarantee resistance towardscreep and corrosion. Simulations for different materialelements located at different distances from the axis ofsymmetry of the initial cylindrical workpiece have been carriedout. In this way, the parameters describing the deformationhistory of the elements have been determined as functions oftime. Experimentally obtained pre- and post deformation grainsize in the corresponding locations of the material weredetermined. It?s concluded that low temperature coupledwith high effective strain are conducive for obtaining a smallgrain size. Based on the beneficial conditions for extrusion ofcopper, a more detailed FE-analysis of a full-scale industrialprocess is carried out. A coarse-grained cast ingot of purecopper is heated and by upset forging formed into a cylinder,which is then punched into a hollow blank for subsequentextrusion. The blank is extruded over a mandrel through a45-degree semi-angle die. Accumulated effective strain andtemperatureas functions of the tubular wall thickness havebeen studied at five different locations along the tubularaxis. Forming load requirement as function of tool displacementfor each stage of the process has been determined. Strain andtemperature levels obtained have been related to the grain sizeinterval obtained in the earlier work. It has been concludedthat the levels reached are within the interval that ensures asmall grain size. A similar analysis has been carried out forforging of large copper lids and bottoms. Die designmodifications to improve the grain size in the lid and tooptimise the forging process with respect to forging load andmaterial yield have been proposed. A method requiring a smallforging load for fabrication of the lids has been analysedKeywords:Pores; grain size; low forging load; effective strain;temperature; hydrostatic pressure; extrusion; forging;canister; lid; rings
Bibliographical Information:


School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan

School Location:Sweden

Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation

Keywords:pores; grain size; low forginnig load; effective strain


Date of Publication:01/01/2003

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