On MIMO Systems and Adaptive Arrays for Wireless Communication : Analysis and Practical Aspects
This thesis is concerned with the use of multiple antenna elements in wireless communication over frequency non-selective radio channels. Both measurement results and theoretical analysis are presented. New transmit strategies are derived and compared to existing transmit strategies, such as beamforming and space-time block coding (STBC). It is found that the best transmission algorithm is largely dependent on the channel characteristics, such as the number of transmit and receive antennas and the existence of a line of sight component. Rayleigh fading multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels are studied using an eigenvalue analysis and exact expressions for the bit error rates and outage capacities for beamforming and STBC is found. In general are MIMO fading channels correlated and there exists a mutual coupling between antenna elements. These findings are supported by indoor MIMO measurements. It is found that the mutual coupling can, in some scenarios, increase the outage capacity. An adaptive antenna testbed is used to obtain measurement results for the single input multiple output (SIMO) channel. The results are analyzed and design guidelines are obtained for how a beamformer implemented in hardware shall be constructed. The effects of nonlinear transmit amplifiers in array antennas are also analyzed, and it is shown that an array reduces the effective intermodulation distortion (IMD) transmitted by the array antenna by a spatial filtering of the IMD. A novel frequency allocation algorithm is proposed that reduces IMD even further. The use of a low cost antenna with switchable directional properties, the switched parasitic antenna, is studied in a MIMO context and compared to array techniques. It is found that it has comparable performance, at a fraction of the cost for an array antenna.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:TECHNOLOGY; Information technology; Systems engineering; Systemteknik; antenna array; calibration; MIMO system; flat fading; non-linear amplifier; switched parasitic antenna; analog beamformer; adaptive antenna testbed; Systemteknik; signalbehandling; Signal Processing
Date of Publication:01/01/2002