Luminescence of Light Emitting Diodes of Fully Conjugated Heterocyclic Aromatic Rigid-rod Polymers
Poly-p-phenylenebenzazoles (PBXs) are heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod liquid-crystalline polymers with fully conjugated backbone having excellent thermo-oxidative, as well as dimensional stabilities. PBXs are considered to be multifunctional polymers of superior mechanical tenacity, non-linear optical response, and electrical properties. The fully conjugated PBX polymers are deemed to have excellent opto-electronic properties. In the last decade, molecular light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated intensively for having distinct advantages as an advanced opto-electronic technology.
This dissertation leads to rigid-rod polymer thin-films and mono-layer devices fabricated from acidic solutions. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra for poly-p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole (PBT) freestanding film were measured over a temperature range of 67 K to 300 K showing distinct electron-phonon interaction. Using an Mg cathode, the mono-layer PBT LEDs displayed a diodic electric response with a threshold voltage as low as 1 V. A blue shift in the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra was also observed with increasing electrical injection energy. For the multi-layer LEDs based on PBT using the same electrodes, the p-type/n-type bi-layer structure showing the most enhanced EL emission, and the tri-layer heterojunction had the least threshold voltage using the same electrodes. Our results indicated that the heterojunction architecture could be applied to balance charge carriers for increasing EL intensity. Meanwhile, the investigation also revealed the advantage in using the extra PBT layer for increasing both EL emission intensity and injection efficiency by lowering its threshold voltage.
Two schemes for making uniaxial freestanding films and LED devices for polarized optical absorption and emission were processed from uniaxial poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO) fiber. The PL of the uniaxial PBO films demonstrated an emission intensity ratio I¡ü/I¡æas high as 5. Anisotropically processed mono-layered PBO LED showed a markedly decreased threshold voltage from 7 V of the isotropic PBO device to 5 V. The polarization effects in optical absorption, PL and EL emissions were acquired and correlated with the uniaxial orientation of the rigid-rod PBO polymer.
The molecular modification investigated the opto-electronic properties of poly-2,2'-m-phenylene-5,5'-bibenzimidazole (Pbi) with PBT physical blends, and monolithic 6F-PBO-OH-co-6F-PBO-di(OC10H21) copolymers. Partially conjugated polymer Pbi and fully conjugated polymer PBT were mixed for luminescence study. Their absorption spectra showed superposition of individual absorption response indicating no inter-molecular energy transfer. However, the PL and the EL emission demonstrated a blue shift with increasing Pbi content. This was attributed to the rigid-rod configuration or the aggregation of PBT perturbed by mixing with coil-like Pbi. It was recognized that the backbone of the fully conjugated rigid-rod PBT was collinear having more charge delocalization than that of not fully conjugated coil-like Pbi. The diode threshold voltage of the physical blends varied from 4 V to 14 V with decreasing PBT content. Another molecular modification was changing the composition of 6F-PBO copolymers. Their PL emission exhibited excellent chromatic tuning range from green to blue emission. The Commission Internationale de l¡¦Eclairage (C. I. E.) coordinates of the copolymer EL emission were from (0.25, 0.53) to (0.24, 0.31) covering a wide visible range and demonstrating a white light emission.
Atomic substitution of the rigid-rod polymers was utilized to examine individual atomic contribution for luminescence emission. The hydrogen bond effect for PBO-OH and PBO was evidenced in a major Stoke¡¦s shift to a longer wavelength because of protonic transfer on the excited state. Elemental electronegativities affected the delocalization of the £k electron leading to a blue shift in absorption spectra as shown in case of PBO and PBT. The PBO molecule was more collinear and co-planar, providing more charge delocalization than PBT. However the absorption edge of the PBT was about 30 nm higher than that of PBO. This suggested that the electronegativities affected the molecular delocalization. Using the solid-state physics with pseudofunction (PSF) calculation, there was good match between absorption spectra and calculated excitation energies for the rigid-rod polymer systems.
Advisor:Bae-Heng Tseng; Jin-Long Hong; Kuang-Yu Hsieh; Ming Chen; Shih-Jung Bai; Li-Wei Tu; Chun-Guey Wu
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:heterocyclic aromatic rigid rod polymer light emittingdiode electroluminescence molecular modification computational simulation polarized emission physical blending photoluminescence white
Date of Publication:06/24/2003