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Localisation of brain functions : stimuling brain activity and source reconstruction for classification

by Noirhomme, Quentin

Abstract (Summary)
A key issue in understanding how the brain functions is the ability to correlate functional information with anatomical localisation. Functional information can be provided by a variety of techniques like positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). All these methods provide different, but complementary, information about the functional areas of the brain. PET and fMRI provide spatially accurate picture of brain regions involved in a given task. TMS permits to infer the contribution of the stimulated brain area to the task under investigation. EEG and MEG, which reflects brain activity directly, have temporal accuracy of the order of a millisecond. TMS, EEG and MEG are offset by their low spatial resolution. In this thesis, we propose two methods to improve the spatial accuracy of method based on TMS and EEG. The first part of this thesis presents an automatic method to improve the localisation of TMS points. The method enables real-time visualisation and registration of TMS evoked responses and MRI. A MF digitiser is used to sample approximately 200 points on the subject's head following a specific digitisation pattern. Registration is obtained by minimising the RMS point to surface distance, computed efficiently using the Euclidean distance transform. Functional maps are created from TMS evoked responses projected onto the brain surface previously segmented from MRI. The second part presents the possibilities to set up a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on reconstructed sources of EEG activity and the parameters to adjust. Reconstructed sources could improve the EEG spatial accuracy as well as add biophysical information on the origin of the signal. Both informations could improve the BCI classification step. Eight BCIs are built to enable comparison between electrode-based and reconstructed source-based BCIs. Tests on detection of laterality of upcoming hand movement demonstrate the interest of reconstructed sources.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:Université catholique de Louvain

School Location:Belgium

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:source reconstruction inverse problem bci tms electroencephalography brain computer interface registration eeg transcranial magnetic stimulation

ISBN:

Date of Publication:10/18/2006

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