LA ARTICULACION DE LA IDENTIDAD NACIONAL EUSKERICA EN TEXTOS DE LOS SIGLOS XVI, XVII Y XVIII THE ARTICULATION OF BASQUE NATIONAL IDENTITY IN XVI, XVII, AND XVIII CENTURY TEXTS
One means which communities have of preserving and legitimizing their national identity is by creating a cultural space defined by the existence of a literature which provides individuals with a shared imagined community. This study analyzes how the authors of early modern Basque texts, beginning with the first print text by Etxepare, articulate and preserve a space for Basque national identity. Chapter one provides a synopsis of the history of the Basque Country. Although a Basque nation state has never existed, on two occasions a semi-political unification was achieved. Basque was not enforced as a national language resulting in dialectical diversity nevertheless, certain uniformity was achieved due to religious texts written in the vernacular. With the formation of the Spanish modern state in the fiftieth century, the Basque provinces became a marginal space within Castilian hegemonic space. Chapter two analyzes definitions of nation and nationalism, emphasizing Anderson’s and Bhabha’s theories of the role of language during community formation. Among the variables of geography, history and tradition, language is essential in order for individuals to share an imagined community. Chapter three evaluates the works of Etxepare, Leizarraga, y De Axular, among others, who have advocated the speaking and preservation of Basque. Most writers develop strategies to work through their marginalized position; only a few use their position within the hegemonic sphere to support the subordinate language. The last chapter examines the circumstances that prompted the creation of the modern Basque nationalist movement. I affirm that centuries before the ideology formulated by Arana Goiri, a distinct Basque ideology already existed. I analyze how this modern national ideology is not parallel with the ideology of early modern Basque texts. The study concludes that early pro-Basque authors relied frequently on using the text’s marginal spaces such as prologues and introductions in order to advocate for the creation of cultural space. Although this approach transgresses the hegemonic space, it is not reactionary or contestatary, but defends the coexistence of national identities. For them Basque is a complete language, entitled to its own imaginary community.
School:University of Cincinnati
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:the foundation of basque national identity language variable in creation aperipheral community articulation texts as cultural space writers promoting a ba
Date of Publication:01/01/2001