Immediate skin-to-skin contact at birth in the reactivity of newborns pain during the Hepatitis B vaccine
Immediate skin-to-skin contact between mother and newborn is an essential procedure in birth care when ones work is focused on the humanization of care. Current studies address the effects of this therapeutic on the relief of acute pain in newborns, though further research on its effects at birth is needed. This study aimed to test the late effect of skin-to-skin contact at birth and on the relief of newborns pain during the administration of Hepatitis B vaccine. This is a comparative study with quasi-experimental design. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at the University of Sao Paulo at Ribeirão Preto, College of Nursing. The newborns composed two groups. Group A had skin-to-skin contact with mothers for 15 minutes after birth and group B was directly sent to heated cribs. Behavioral manifestations as sleep-awake state, adapted NFCS, time spent crying and moro reflexes were video recorded in the pre-injection, procedure (antisepsis, puncture, injection and compression) and recovery stages. Cardiac frequency (FC) was registered from the pre-injection phase up to the total recovery. Normality of distributions was tested through Kolmogorov-Smirnov. ANOVA with repetitive measures was used to compare NFCS and FC scores, which permitted intra and between groups analysis. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the variable sleep-awake state in the comparison between groups. The Friedmans test followed by Wilcoxon for multiple comparisons with value adjusted for level of significance according to the number of comparisons were used for the intra-groups comparison. Chi-square test was used for the categorical variables. Statistically significant effect was not found for the NFCS in the groups interaction and phases of study (p=0.357). Such effect was not observed in the between groups analysis considering all phases (p=0.298). On the other hand, statistically significant effect was found in the intra-groups analysis and the average value of NFCS in the procedure phases differed from averages of the pre-injection and recovery phases (p=0.000) considering the groups as a whole. Statistically significant difference was not found in median values of groups during the three phases regarding the sleep-awake state (p=0.29; p=1.0; p=0.14). There was significant difference in the intra-groups analysis between pre-injection and procedure phases (p=0.000), and also between procedure and recovery (p=0.000). The tests did not evidence statistical significance for differences found between groups in all phases regarding time spent crying (p=0.18; p= 0.57; p=0.51). Group A presented more reflexes episodes during all phases and such difference was significant between groups (p= 0.02; p=0.04; p=0.01). In the FC analysis, the average values were higher for group A in all phases. There was no statistically significant difference of the groups interaction and phase of study (p=0.933), in the intra-groups analysis (p=0.075) and between groups (p=0.332). The effect of late skin-to-skin contact was not statistically evidenced in the reduction of behavioral indicators and physiological indicator of reactivity to pain during the administration of Hepatitis B vaccine. However, results appoint the moment of contact as intense behavioral modulation for newborns. Newborns separated from mothers after contact cried more, presented higher NFCS and FC scores and more reflexes, which were statistically significant. Therefore, even though the statistical analysis did not present differences between groups, it was possible to clinically observe more behavioral and physiological alterations in the group who was in contact with the mother and was then withdrawn.
Advisor:Adriana Moraes Leite; Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares; Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi; Adriana Moraes Leite
School:Universidade de São Paulo
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords: Hepatitis B
Date of Publication:02/02/2009