Identification of Hordeum vulgare-H bulbosum recombinants using cytological and molecular methods
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) is an important crop and ranks fourth in overall production of the major cereal crops in the world. Like other cereal crops, barley suffers from a narrowing of its genetic base and susceptibility to diseases, pests and environmental stresses. H. bulbosum is a possible source of desirable genes for introgressing into barley to restore genetic diversity and improve current cultivars. Sexual hybridisation between barley and H. bulbosum is the main method for interspecific gene transfer in barley breeding but there are several barriers to overcome. Two of these are reduced recombination and the ability to identify recombinants quickly and efficiently. The aim in this thesis was to gain a better understanding of meiotic chromosomal behaviour in the two species and their hybrids and to improve the characterisation of recombinants from the hybrids. To study the events during meiosis, synaptonemal complex (SC) analysis was carried out on the two species and two H. vulgare - H. bulbosum hybrids. The results indicated that there were interspecific and intraspecific variations in SC length. Mean SC length was positively correlated with recombination frequency but not related to genome size. This suggests that the ratios of mean SC length to genome size (SC/DNA) show divergence among these Hordeum examples. An hypothesis based on the conformation of chromatin associated with axial element, which is dependent on SC/DNA ratio, was presented to explain the relationship between SC length and recombination frequency. Chromosome pairing in the two hybrids was determined by observation at pachytene and metaphase I (MI). Mean percentages of synapses were similar but there were different frequencies of MI pairing between these two hybrids, indicating that different mechanisms may regulate synapsis and MI pairing in the hybrids. To investigate meiotic recombination, genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) was performed on the two hybrids at MI and anaphase I (AI). It was observed that intergenomic pairing and recombination events occur in distal chromosome segments. A great discrepancy between mean pairing and recombination frequencies was observed in both hybrids and several possible reasons for this discrepancy were discussed. Hybrid 102C2 with high MI pairing had a significantly higher recombination frequency than the low pairing 103K5, suggesting that high MI pairing appears to be associated with high recombination in the hybrids. An interesting finding is that the ratio of recombination to MI pairing in 103K5 (l:8.9) is twice as high compared with 102C2 (l:17). However, the mechanism for this difference in the ratio between the two hybrids remains unknown. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and GISH were used successfully to localise the introgressions in selfed progeny from a tetraploid hybrid derived from chromosome-doubled 102C2 (102C2/colch). This procedure is fast, cheap and can efficiently detect and locate introgressions. Several disease-resistant recombinants were analysed in more details and leaf rust and powdery mildew resistance was associated with distal introgressions on chromosomes 2HS and 2HL (leaf rust) and 2HS (powdery mildew). It is possible that the leaf rust and powdery mildew resistances were closely linked in the distal region of 2HS. A considerable variation in introgression size was observed at similar chromosomal sites among the different recombinants, which will provide useful information for map-based cloning of genes.
Advisor:Associate Professor Brian Murray; Dr Richard Pickering
School:The University of Auckland / Te Whare Wananga o Tamaki Makaurau
School Location:New Zealand
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:fields of research 270000 biological sciences 270200 genetics 270209 meiosis and recombination
Date of Publication:01/01/2000