Hyperglycemia and Focal Brain Ischemia : Clinical and Experimental Studies
Diabetes is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and is associated with increased mortality. Additionally, hyperglycemia, a common complication in acute stroke, is associated with poor outcome.In order to identify the correlation between blood glucose and early mortality, multiple logistic regression analyses were used and odds ratios calculated in a retrospective study of 447 stroke patients. Eighty-one patients (18%) had diabetes. The odds ratios for 30-day case-fatality and blood glucose were 1.9 and 1.6 in diabetic and non-diabetic patients respectively. Optimal blood glucose concentrations in respective group were 10.3 and 6.3 mmol/L, as determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves.Cerebral ischemia triggers different signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which regulate fundamental cell functions. In an experimental rat model of combined hyperglycemia and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), the activation pattern of one such MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was studied along with infarct volumes and neurological function. Hyperglycemia resulted in markedly increased ERK activation and approximately three-fold increase of infarcts compared with controls. Based on the increased ERK activation, further experiments were conducted to limit the hyperglycemic-ischemic damage by interfering with ERK and supposedly related mechanisms. Consequently, rats were given U0126 (inhibiting ERK activation), PBN (anti-oxidative), PP2 (inhibiting src-family kinases), or vehicle. PBN reduced infarcts and improved neurological function compared with controls while no statistically significant effects were observed for U0126 or PP2. However, when the dose was doubled, U0126 significantly reduced infarcts and improved neurological function after 1 day in hyperglycemic rats. Post-ischemic ERK activation was completely inhibited by U0126 as demonstrated with Western immunoblotting. The findings suggest that ERK is an important mediator of hyperglycemic-ischemic brain injury and possible target for future interventions.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine; Internal medicine; Internal medicine; cerebrovascular disorders; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; infarction; middle cerebral artery; ischemia; mitogen-activated protein kinases; mortality; rats; reactive oxygen species; reperfusion; signal transduction; therapeutics; Invärtesmedicin
Date of Publication:01/01/2005