A Hong Kong evaluation of encounter group : comparison of participants' expectations and change under varied formats
The abstract of tho thesis entitled "The Hong Kong Evaluation of Encounter Groups" is nubmittGd by Tang hen Chung, Robert, for the Degree of Master of' Social Sciences (Clinical Psychology) at the University of Hong Kong in June, 19 79,
Forty-throe, voluntas subjects were used and they belong to one of: the three experimental groups (two Gesta.lt Oriented, one: Social Kl'feetivonoss Training) or a non-encounter Control group. The self-report inventories (POI, RAS and Ques i ionnairo) were administered once before the Encounter experiences and another tima at the last session of the experiences.
The Attitude towards Groups questionnaire employed in fhi's research v.'as designed especially for the purpose of measuring the participants' attitude changes towards encounter groups after the encounter experience. It is designed from the contents of interviews with 24 encounter group participants in which they were asked of their knowledge and feelings of encounter groups. 21 pairs of adjectives or phrases were extracted, fitted with seven-point scales and presented in order of difficulty. The directional]'.ty of the i terns were counterbalanced.
This research also established a norm of 156 local university students' POI scores collected in 19 78 for the purpo.se of providing a basis of comparison for the groups studied. The group POI pre-test scores for the 4 groups employed in this research fall in the same range as the norm score, suggesting that the subjects of this research are comparable with the 156 university students as measured by the POI.
There is a tendency for most scores on the POI scales to improve after the Encounter experiences, whilst the control-experience did not induce such tendency. Moreover, the Cos tall: Oriented groups were able to induce significant changes in the direction of more able to live in the present (I) , hoi,ding more values of self-actualizing persons (SAV) , being more flexible in application of values (Ex), and being more
seri?t'iVto th'-ir cwo "|,;h1s and feelings (Fr) , being more; able to fcjec m:.i'3-S good (Nc) , being more accepting of own' a aggression (A) arid being more able to establish warm relationships (0) . Tiie Gestalt Oriented Groups induced significantly greater changer; in the ability to establish warm relationships (C) when compared to the Social Effectiveness Training Group. The "Marathon" Gestalt Oriented Group (Group IT) induced significantly greater changes in the ability to live in the present, relatively free from guilt or fears (To) than the Weekly Gcstalt Oi'iontod Group (Group II).
The RAS results indicate a significant, change in the Soci.al Effectiveness Tra.in.ing Group when compared with the two Gestalt Oriented Groups, as expected. Nevertheless, all three Experimental Groups were able to induce a tendency to improve in social asscrtiveness as measured by the RAS. The Control Group showed less tendency to improve.
Results of the "Attitude towards Groups" Questionnaire show that participants' attitudes towards groups are mostly positive. Changes occur in the participants' considering that encounter experience can make an individual being more accepting of suggestion, being more sincere, active, constructive, well adjusted, frank and open, outspoken and comfortable with self and others.
The research partially supports the. hypothesis that Encounter Groups induce positive mental health on the part of the local participants. however, the small sample size employed limits the predictability and gcncralizability of the findings.
School:The University of Hong Kong
School Location:China - Hong Kong SAR
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:group relations training
Date of Publication:01/01/1979