High velocity formability and factors affecting it
High velocity forming methods successfully address problems faced in conventional forming techniques. They can be effectively used for forming metals with low formability like aluminum alloys and high strength steel. They can be instrumental is manufacturing of lighter vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is an HVF method that is gaining wide acceptance due to its advantages and scope for commercialization. A number of experimental studies were carried out with EMF with the main goal of exploring fundamentals about material formability at high velocities, which can be used to establish practical design guidelines and to make models of high velocity formability. Thus the main factors that influence high velocity formability – inertia / size effects; changes in constitutive behavior; impact; and dynamic failure modes, were studied mainly with experiments. The role of changes in constitutive behavior in improving formability was studied from existing studies and new theoretical studies involving High velocity Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and through solving an inverse problem of ring expansion. Tube free-expansion experiments were carried out to demonstrate enhanced metal formability even in the absence of die impact. To further establish the significance of inertia, electromagnetic ring free-expansion experiments with rings of different aspect ratios were carried out. The results clearly demonstrated the influence of sample aspect ratio (dimensions) and hence inertia on high velocity formability. Die impact experiments were carried out with tubes and rings to show the beneficial influence of die arrest of a moving sample. It was revealed that die impact in an appropriate range of velocities can significantly suppress failure and reduce the number of tears and fractures in the samples. Further a new mode of failure in die impacted samples, spall-like dynamic rupture was observed, which had characteristics similar to classic spall failure. Thus through all these studies, the important factors influencing high velocity formability was studied and it was shown that it can be more complex than quasi-static formability. Boundary conditions for each forming operation can play a more significant role and hence simple tools like FLDs might not be practical tools for studying high velocity formability.
School:The Ohio State University
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:high velocity forming formability electromagnetic
Date of Publication:01/01/2006