Heat transfer through mould flux with titanium oxide additions

by Bothma, Jan Andries.

Abstract (Summary)
KEY WORDS: continuous casting, crystallisation, cuspidine, heat transfer, heat barrier, mould flux, perovskite, slag, stainless steel, titanium. Mould powders are synthetic slags that contain mixtures of silica (SiO2), lime (CaO), sodium oxide (Na2O), fluorspar (CaF2), and carbon (C). When heated to elevated temperatures these powders liquefy and float on the liquid steel in the mould. Mould oscillation helps the liquid flux to penetrate the tiny gap between the mould and the newly formed solid steel shell. In this position the liquid flux partially solidifies against the water cooled mould, while a small portion of the flux remains liquid next to the steel shell to provide lubrication between the moving parts. Effective horizontal heat transfer in the mould is critical for solidifying the liquid steel in the mould. This process is largely influenced by the thickness and the nature of the flux layer that infiltrates the mould/shell gap. When casting titanium stabilised stainless steels the alloying element reacts with the molten flux, ultimately changing the behaviour of the flux. During the casting process, titanium from the liquid steel reacts with the molten flux producing solids at high temperatures known as perovskite (CaTiO3). Research has shown that perovskite reduces the lubrication capabilities of casting fluxes leading to detrimental effects on product quality while posing a serious threat of machine damage (breakout). The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of titanium pickup on the solidification nature of mould flux and the consequences on horizontal heat transfer. To achieve this, an experimental setup was constructed to simulate the behaviour of mould flux during continuous casting. Analyses of the test flux indicated that the liquid flux closest to the cold side (mould) instantly froze to produce a glassy solid structure. Closer to the hot side (steel shell), solid particles such as perovskite, cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2), olivine (Ca,Mg,Mn)2SiO4 and nepheline (Na2O?Al2O3?(SiO2)2) could be identified. Similar solid particles were also found in a slag rim sample taken during the industrial casting of 321titanium stabilised stainless steel using SPH-KA1 mould powder.
Bibliographical Information:


School:University of Pretoria/Universiteit van Pretoria

School Location:South Africa

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:heat titanium dioxide steel stainless continuous casting flux metallurgy slag crystallization high temperatures perovskite


Date of Publication:

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