Getting an "Active Start": the effect of project SKIP on object control skills in preschoolers who are disadvantaged
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two motor skills instructional approaches; a low autonomy (LA) and mastery motivational climate (MMC) approach on object control (OC) skills of preschoolers who are disadvantaged (N = 124) along with the predictors of OC skill performance. The OC subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) assessed OC skills prior to, following, and nine-weeks after the intervention. At the pretest, all groups demonstrated OC skill scores that were developmentally delayed. A pretest 3 Group X 2 Sex ANOVA confirmed no Group differences in OC skills (p=.78) and a non-significant Group X Time interaction (p=.10). Overall, a 2 Group X 2 Time X 2 Sex ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess OC skill learning from pretest to retention test for the LA and MMC groups. A significant main effect for Time (p<.001, ç2=.92) was present along with a non-significant Group X Time interaction (p<.142) revealing that the intervention groups demonstrated significant pretest to retention test differences in OC skill performance. Paired sample t-tests assessed the overall changes from pretest to retention test and revealed that both the LA and MMC nine-week OC skill intervention was effective in improving the OC skill performance of the preschoolers from pretest levels (p<.001). In terms of predictors of OC skill performance at pretest, grip strength, sex, and age were predictive of pretest OC scores. Prior OC skill scores served as a predictor for posttest and retention test scores for all groups. More intriguing, the variables of child risk factor, body mass index, and skinfolds demonstrate a negative correlation for OC skill performance. Results from this study concludes that preschool children who are disadvantaged are developmentally delayed in motor skills, and motor intervention is necessary and valuable.
School:The Ohio State University
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:fundamental motor skills instructional approaches high autonomy environments skill development
Date of Publication:01/01/2007