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Getting an "Active Start" the effect of project SKIP on object control skills in preschoolers who are disadvantaged /

by 1978- Robinson, Leah E.

Abstract (Summary)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two motor skills instructional approaches; a low autonomy (LA) and mastery motivational climate (MMC) approach on object control (OC) skills of preschoolers who are disadvantaged (N = 124) along with the predictors of OC skill performance. The OC subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) assessed OC skills prior to, following, and nine-weeks after the intervention. At the pretest, all groups demonstrated OC skill scores that were developmentally delayed. A pretest 3 Group X 2 Sex ANOVA confirmed no Group differences in OC skills (p=.78) and a non-significant Group X Time interaction (p=.10). Following the intervention, a 3 Group X 2 Time X 2 Sex ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted to assess pre-to-posttest changes. A significant Group X Time interaction (p<.001, ? ii 2=.82) was present. Post hoc analysis revealed non-significant differences between the LA and MMC groups (p=.77), but a significant difference between the comparison and LA and MMC groups (p<.001). Paired sample t-tests confirmed pretest to posttest improvements in both intervention groups (p<.001) and non-significant changes within the comparison group (p=.17). A post hoc ANOVA on posttest OC scores revealed a significant Group effect (p<.001, ?2=.73). Follow-up analysis indicated non-significant differences between the LA and MMC posttest OC skill scores (p=.59), but significant differences between the comparison group and both LA and MMC groups (p<.001). A 3 Group X 2 Time X 2 Sex ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess posttest to retention test changes in OC skill scores. A significant Group X Time interaction was found (p<.001, ?2=.22). Post hoc analysis revealed a non-significant difference between the LA and MMC groups (p=.49), but significant differences between the LA and MMC and comparison groups (p<.001). Paired sample t-tests demonstrated a significant decrease in OC skill scores from posttest to retention test for the LA and MMC groups (p<.001), and non-significant changes for the comparison groups (p=.90). Posttest ANOVA for retention OC skill scores, indicated non-significant differences between the LA and MMC groups (p=.42) and significant differences between the LA and MMC and comparison groups (p<.001). A 2 Group X 2 Time X 2 Sex ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess OC skill learning from pretest to retention test for the LA and MMC groups. A significant main effect for Time (p<.001, ?2=.92) was present along with a non-significant Group X Time interaction (p<.142) revealing that the intervention groups demonstrated significant pretest to retention test differences in OC skill performance. Paired sample t-tests assessed the overall changes from pretest to retention test and revealed that both the LA and MMC nine-week OC skill intervention was effective in improving the OC skill performance of the preschoolers from pretest levels (p<.001). In terms of predictors of OC skill performance at pretest, grip strength, sex, and age were predictive of pretest OC scores. Prior OC skill scores served as a predictor for posttest and retention test scores for all groups. More intriguing, the variables of child risk factor, body mass index, and skinfolds demonstrate a negative correlation for OC skill performance. Results from this study concludes that preschool iii children who are disadvantaged are developmentally delayed in motor skills, and motor intervention is necessary and valuable. iv “Children are the world’s most valuable resources and its best hope for the future.” (John F. Kennedy, 1963)
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:The Ohio State University

School Location:USA - Ohio

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:motor ability in children physical education for poor

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