The Generation of Disinfection By-Products during Advanced Drinking Water Treatment Processes
Disinfectants, such as chlorine, are widely used in water treatment plants to ensure the safety and quality of drinking water. However, these disinfectants easily react with some natural or man-made organic compounds in raw water and then form disinfection by-products (DBPs). For example, halogenated acetic acid (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two main components of DBPs.
The purposes of this study are to analyze the concentration of DBPs including HAAs and THMs in drinking water and investigate the distribution of DBPs in the processes of three advanced water treatment plants in southern Taiwan. The analytical method of HAAs is based on the USEPA Method 552.3 and THMs is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction(HS-SPME). Moreover, some factors which may influence the formation of DBPs such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and water temperature are also analyzed to further discuss the relation to the generation of DBPs. Through this study, the results could be the reference for operation control in water treatment plants and regulation setting in Taiwan.
The samples of drinking water were collected in three advanced water treatment plants in southern Taiwan from June 2007 to April 2008. The analyzed HAA9 results were 28.71 ¡Ó 14.77£g g / L in Plant A, 24.43 ¡Ó 15.70 £g g / L in Plant B, 28.91 ¡Ó 14.38 £g g / L in Plant C. Comparing the HAA5 results with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) in USEPA, it was clearly found that all the values were under the standard of 60 £g g / L. As to THMs, the results were 9.99 ¡Ó 3.39£g g / L in Plant A, 0.94 ¡Ó 2.12 £g g / L in Plant B, 28.91 ¡Ó 14.38 £g g / L in Plant C and greatly under the EPA standard of 80 £g g / L in Taiwan. Furthermore, the major species of HAA9 in order were BCAA and TCAA while THMs was trichloromethane (CHCl3).
In the relation between DOC and DBPs, the results demonstrated that DOC was more relative to DBPs in raw water; meanwhile, the water temperature did not show great relation. In general, despite the poor correlation, it was still could conclude that the concentration of DBPs increases with the increase of DOC and temperature.
In conclusion, the research results showed that the removal efficiency of DBPs in Plant A and B (UF/RO system) is greater than Plant C (Biological Activated Carbon system, BAC system ), and all three advanced water treatment plants could show greatly effectiveness in drinking water quality improvement. However, higher concentration of bromine products in HAAs was discovered in this research. It was suggested that the phenomenon should be further discussed and controlled.
Advisor:Shang-Lien Lo; Jie-Chung Lou; Jhy-Chern Liu
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:trihalomethanes formation potential haloacetic acids acid
Date of Publication:07/01/2008