Functional Studies on the PDGFR ? gene promoter and effects of autocrine PDGF-A stimulation in vivo
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR?) plays an important role during embryogenesis. After implantation, the patterns of expression of Pdgfr? and its ligand Pdgf-A undergo an "autocrine-paracrine transition", in that Pdgf-A becomes expressed in the ectoderm and epithelia, while Pdgfr? is expressed in the adjacent mesenchymal tissue. In human tumors, such as malignant glioma, both PDGF and PDGFR? are overexpressed within the same tissue, indicating that an autocrine PDGF loop is generated in the tumors. This thesis is focused on the in vivo functionality of the PDGFR? gene (PDGFRA) promoter, arid on the effect of autocrine PDGF-A stimulation in transgenic n-iice during embryogenesis. To test the in vivo promoter function of a human PDGFRA 2.2 kb 5' flanking fragment, we generated transgenic mouse lines and found that the 2.2 kb fragment was able to promote lacZ reporter gene expression in most of the endogenous Pdgfra expressing tissues. Absence of expression and "ectopic" expression of the transgenic lacZ were also observed. To investigate the autocrine PDGF effect, we produced autocrine PDGF-As (A short-chain) transient transgenic embryos. These transgenic embryos carried a 6 kb mouse Pdgfra 5' flanking sequence linked to a human PDGF-As cDNA. The pattern of expression of the PDGF-As transgene mRNA was similar to that of lacZ. Some of the transgenic embryos exhibited severe abnormal phenotypes, such as midline fusion defects in the cephalic and craniofacial region and small body size, and these embryos die at mid-gestation stage. These findings indicate that a paracrine pattern of expression and the dosage of PDGF are important for sustaining normal embryo development, especially with regard to the middline fusion in craniofacial regions. The possible signaling pathways that may be involved in regulating Pdgfra activity were also studied by comparison of patterns of mRNA expression of Gli, Ptc, and Paxl with that of Pdgfra. The results pointed to the possibility that the Shh signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of Pdgfra expression for example during early bone and foregut development. The specific regulatory mechanisms may vary for different tissues.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine; Clinical genetics; Genetics; Autorcrine PDGF; promoter; PDGFRA; transgenic mice; Genetik; patologi; Pathology
Date of Publication:01/01/2001