Force measurements using scanning probe microscopy : Applications to advanced powder processing
The object of this thesis is to apply scanning probemicroscopy (SPM) to the field of advanced powder processing.Measurement of interparticle surface forces at conditionsrelevant to ceramic processing has been performed together withthorough studies of powder friction.Surface force measurements between silicon nitride andsilica surfaces in 1-bromonaphtalene and diiodomethane resultedin an attractive van der Waals force in both media for thesymmetric systems and a repulsive van der Waals force for theasymmetric systems. This agreed well with theoreticalpredictions from Lifshitz theory. Measurements in electrolytesolutions between silicon nitride surfaces with a varyingdegree of oxidation showed that silanol groups dominated theinteractions at a high degree of oxidation, whereas theinfluence of amine species became stronger after surfaceetching. Surface charge, surface potential and density ofsurface groups have been extracted from DLVO computer modellingof the experimental force curves. Surface force measurementshave been carried out using a nitrided silica sphere as acolloidal probe, representative for commercial silicon nitridepowders. Adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) above the isoelectricpoint generated a thin polymer layer of an essentially flatconformation.Friction force measurements were attainable via novelcalibration procedures of both the lateral photodetectorresponse and the cantilever torsional spring constant.Combining the method for detector calibration with evaluationof static friction slopes simplified the choice of appropriatecontact mechanics theory to evaluate the friction measurements.Applying the method on friction measurements between ironsurfaces coated with commercial lubricants showed a substantialsurface deformation not seen from the friction force alone. Thenanorheological properties of silica surfaces coated with twodifferent stearic acids have been evaluated from friction forcemeasurements. Steady sliding motion was replaced by highlyregular stick-slip motion at a critical load and velocity. Thestick-slip motion was successfully described and fitted to aphenomenological model. The contact area evaluated fromMaugis-Dugdale theory revealed the contact diameter to be veryclose to the stick-slip periodicity.Friction measurements were carried out between individualspray-dried ceramic granules as a function of binderconcentration and relative humidity. The hygroscopic nature ofthe binder resulted in a higher adhesion force but lowerfriction coefficient with increasing humidity. This effect wasascribed to softening of the binder and a lowering of the shearstrength of the binder rich surface layer on the granules.Comparison of the friction force between two granules and agranule and a hard metal surface confirmed that resistance toflow during the initial stages of powder pressing is dominatedby granule-wall friction and adhesion.Keywords: Atomic force microscope, AFM, SPM, van der Waalsinteraction, DLVO-theory, surface forces, colloidal probe,force curve, friction, adhesion, stick-slip, cantilever,calibration, spring constant, silicon nitride, iron,silica.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:atomic force microscope; AFM; SPM; van der Waals interaction; DLVO-theory; surface forces; colloidal probe; force curve; friction; adhesion; stick-slip; cantilever; calibration; spring constant; silicon nitride; iron; silica
Date of Publication:01/01/2000