Finite Element and Electrical Circuit Modelling of Faulty Induction Machines - Study of Internal Effects and Fault Detection Techniques/Modélisation par éléments finis et par équations de circuits des machines asynchrones en défaut - Etude des effets internes et techniques de détection de défauts.

by Sprooten, Jonathan

Abstract (Summary)
This work is dedicated to faulty induction motors. These motors are often used in industrial applications thanks to their usability and their robustness. However, nowadays optimisation of production becomes so critical that the conceptual reliability of the motor is not sufficient anymore. Motor condition monitoring is expanding to serve maintenance planning and uptime maximisation. Moreover, the use of drive control sensors (namely stator current and voltage) can avoid the installation and maintenance of dedicated sensors for condition monitoring. Many authors are working in this field but few approach the diagnosis from a detailed and clear physical understanding of the localised phenomena linked to the faults. Broken bars are known to modulate stator currents but it is shown in this work that it also changes machine saturation level in the neighbourhood of the bar. Furthermore, depending on the voltage level, this change in local saturation affects the amplitude and the phase of the modulation. This is of major importance as most diagnosis techniques use this feature to detect and quantify broken bars. For stator short-circuits, a high current is flowing in the short-circuited coil due to mutual coupling with the other windings and current spikes are flowing in the rotor bars as they pass in front of the short-circuited conductors. In the case of rotor eccentricities, the number of pole-pairs and the connection of these pole-pairs greatly affect the airgap flux density distribution as well as the repartition of the line currents in the different pole-pairs. These conclusions are obtained through the use of time-stepping finite element models of the faulty motors. Moreover, circuit models of faulty machines are built based on the conclusions of previously explained fault analysis and on classical Park models. A common mathematical description is used which allows objective comparison of the models for representation of the machine behaviour and computing time. The identifiability of the parameters of the models as well as methods for their identification are studied. Focus is set on the representation of the machine behaviour using these parameters more than the precise identification of the parameters. It is shown that some classical parameters can not be uniquely identified using only stator measurements. Fault detection and identification using computationally cheap models are compared to advanced detection through motor stator current spectral analysis. This last approach allows faster detection and identification of the fault but leads to incorrect conclusions in low load conditions, in transient situations or in perturbed environments (i.e. fluctuating load torque and unideal supply). Efficient quantification of the fault can be obtained using detection techniques based on the comparison of the process to a model. Finally, the work provides guidelines for motor supervision strategies depending on the context of motor utilisation.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Raison, Bertrand; Vandevelde, Lieven; Gyselinck, Johan; Kinnaert, Michel; Maun, Jean-Claude; Robert, Frédéric; Mathys, Pierre

School:Université libre de Bruxelles

School Location:Belgium

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:modélisation modelling eléments finis finite element diagnostic détection de défauts fault detection moteurs asynchrones induction motors


Date of Publication:09/21/2007

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