Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease : Special Reference to Stearoyl-CoA-Desaturase and Biomarkers of Dietary Fat
The development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases have been suggested to be influenced more by the quality than the amount of dietary fat. The FA composition of serum lipids may be used as biomarkers of dietary fat quality. FAs can, however, also be endogenously synthesized by lipogenic enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Three desaturases are important in humans: Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD), ?6-desaturase (D6D) and ?5-desaturase (D5D) and surrogate measures of desaturase activities can be estimated as product-to-precursor FA ratios.In this thesis, we demonstrated that high SCD, D6D and low D5D estimated activities predicted MetS 20 years later, as well as cardiovascular and total mortality during a maximum of 33.7 years. The relation between D5D and MetS was independent of lifestyle and BMI, while the relation between SCD, D6D and MetS was confounded by BMI. Serum proportions of palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and dihomo-?-linoleic acids were higher and the serum proportion of linoleic acid (LA) lower at baseline in those individuals who developed MetS. Further, LA was inversely related to mortality, while palmitic, palmitoleic and dihomo-?-linoleic acids were directly associated with mortality. We also demonstrated that a diet rich in saturated fat “induced” a similar serum FA pattern (including estimated desaturase activities) that was associated with MetS, cardiovascular disease and mortality. We also propose that the SCD ratio [16:1/16:0] might be a novel and useful marker of dietary saturated fat, at least in Western high-fat diets. Finally, genetic variations in the human SCD1 gene were linked to obesity and insulin sensitivity, results that agree with data in SCD1 deficient mice.This thesis suggests that dietary fat quality and endogenous desaturation may play a role in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and the results support current dietary guidelines.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:Nutrition; Fatty acids; Dietary fat; Biomarker; Metabolic Syndrome; Mortality; Obesity; Insulin Sensitivity; Epidemiology; Estimated desaturase activities; Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase; delta-6-desaturase; delta-5-desaturase; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; Dietary Intervention; Rapeseed oil; Saturated fat; SCD1; Näringslära
Date of Publication:01/01/2007