An Exploration of Culturally-based Assumptions Guiding ELT Practice in Thailand, a Non-colonized Nation
This dissertation explores the perceptions prevalent in the discourse community of
English teachers in Thailand regarding the role of English and English Language
Teaching (ELT). In particular, this study seeks to determine to what extent these
perceptions show characteristics of de facto colonialism in the local ELT context, which
is identified by critical applied linguists.
The participants were Thai teachers of English from the lower northern region of
the country. Data were derived from two sources: a questionnaire and e-mail interviews.
In response to the main question posed in this research—What signs, if any, are there of
de facto colonialism embedded in the ELT context of a non-colonized nation, Thailand?
Characteristics of colonialism can be explained in four interrelated dimensions,
namely, scholastic, linguistic, cultural, and economic. In the first dimension, Thai
scholarship and wisdom are perceived as inferior to those of English native speakers, at
least in the view of the Thai TESOL professionals. Secondly, the teacher participants
agree that Thai students will be better English users if they conform to the language
patterns and norms of native speakers. Moreover, it is perceived that Thai students will
learn English better if they know Western native-speakers’ culture. Finally, the participants state that it is preferable to offer more and better job opportunities for
English teachers in the country if they are native speakers from the West. Given the
results of the study, it can safely be assumed that to certain extent colonial values can be
observed through the local teachers’ perceptions.
The dissertation concludes with suggestions and recommendations for not only
Thai teachers of English, but also others involved in the local ELT. We, Thais, have to
be aware that ELT in the country has been influenced by views favoring ‘nativeness,’ or
‘native-speakerism.’ This ideology cannot equip us to fully participate in richly
multicultural English-using communities that are emerging in the 21st century global
environment. Further, evaluation schemes should not be designed to assess Thai
students’ performance against the British or American norms or to measure to what
extent they conform to such dominant ‘native’ patterns and models.
School:Indiana University of Pennsylvania
School Location:USA - Pennsylvania
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:critical applied linguistics english education language and power linguistic cultural imperialism tesol world englishes
Date of Publication:05/05/2009