Evaluation of Respiratory Mechanics by Flow Signal Analysis : With Emphasis on Detecting Partial Endotracheal Tube Obstruction During Mechanical Ventilation
Evaluating respiratory mechanics during dynamic conditions without interrupting ongoing ventilation and flow, adds to the information obtained from the mechanics derived from static (= no flow) conditions, i.e., the flow signal has the potential to provide information on the properties of the respiratory system (including the tubing system). Hence monitoring the changes in the flow signal during ongoing mechanical ventilation would give information about the dynamic mechanics of the respiratory system. Any change in the mechanics of the respiratory system including the endotracheal tube (ETT) and the ventilatory circuit would affect the shape of the flow signal. Knowledge of the airway pressure distal to the ETT at the carina level (= tracheal pressure) is required for calculating the extra resistive load exerted by the endotracheal tube in order to compensate for it. In a porcine model, the flow signal was used to non-invasively calculate tracheal pressure. There was good agreement between calculated and measured tracheal pressure with different modes of ventilation. However, calculation of tracheal pressure assumes that the inner diameter of the ETT is known, and this assumption is not met if the inner diameter is narrowed by secretions. Flow that passes a narrowed tube is decelerated and this is most pronounced with the high flow of early expiration, yielding a typical time constant over expiratory volume pattern that is easy to recognize during mechanical ventilation. This pattern reliably detected partial endotracheal obstruction during volume and pressure controlled mechanical ventilation. A change in compliance of the respiratory system modifies the elastic recoil and this also affects the rate of the expiratory flow and the shape of its signal. In a porcine model, lung volume gains on the flow signal generated by the heartbeats (cardiogenic oscillations) provided information about the compliance of the respiratory system during ongoing mechanical ventilationIn conclusion analyzing the flow signal during ongoing ventilation can be a cheap, non-invasive and reliable tool to monitor the elastic and resistive properties of the respiratory system including the endotracheal tube.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Surgery; Anaesthetics and intensive care; Anaesthesiology and intensive care; Complication: obstructed endotracheal tube; Equipment:endotracheal tube; Heart: cardiogenic oscillation; Respiratory mechanics: respiratory mechanics; Ventilation: controlled mechanical; Anestesiologi och intensivvård
Date of Publication:01/01/2006