Handelsbolagslösningen : Ett skatteupplägg där näringsfastigheter avyttras paketerade i svenska handelsbolag ägda av nederländska juridiska personer
Swedish real estate companies have attracted a lot of attention by packaging industrial real estate in general partnership companies that are owned by foreign legal entities. This tax arrangement is a phenomenon that is referred to as the general partnership solution. In this thesis, we use a case example in which the partners in the Swedish general partnership are legal entities with Dutch nationality. The tax arrangement includes three transaction phases, where the first involves an under priced transfer of a commercial real estate from the selling Swedish private limited company to the Swedish general partnership. In the second phase, the Dutch partners trade their shares in the Swedish general partnership including the real estate to an external buying private limited company in Sweden. After the trade the buying Swedish private limited company liquidates the general partnership and transfer the real estate from the general partnership to itself. As a result of this tax arrangement a complex problematic arises when the Swedish private limited company obtain the hidden value in the real estate by receiving tax-free dividends from the Dutch partner companies. The buying Swedish private limited company simultaneously receive capital deficit tax deductions in Sweden, which means that losses can be settled by corresponding capital profits within the company, consequently reducing their tax base. The long depreciation period of real estates means that packaging represents great economical significance. The question that arises is whether the general partnership solution is consistent with Swedish law. Based on a juridical dogmatic method, we consider this complex of problems by means of a systematic assessment of the discussed transactions.In the first step of the general partnership solution, we consider whether the transfer of real estate from the selling Swedish private limited company fulfils the conditions for a qualified under priced transfer. We find that the under priced transfer is qualified, and therefore withdrawal taxation does not occur.In the second step, the arising question is whether the Dutch partner companies become liable for taxation in Sweden for capital profit generated from the disposed shares in the Swedish general partnership. According to the prerequisites and reasoning in legal cases, we find that tax liability in Sweden does not arise for the Dutch partners. In the third and final step, we are faced with the question whether the buying Swedish private limited company has the legal right to deduct the capital loss that results from the Swedish general partnership resolution. The assessment is based on whether the loss can be considered genuine. In accordance with case law we regard the capital loss genuine and therefore tax-deductible.In our legal inquiry we conclude that the three different transaction phases comply with Swedish law. Considering this, we find it imperative to examine whether the Swedish tax evasion law can apply in the case example. By virtue of domestic law, it is not probable that the tax evasion law can apply on the buying Swedish private limited company’s taxation. In regards to the seller’s taxation, we clarify whether the tax evasion law can be applicable concerning the selling Swedish private limited company. We find that the tax evasion law is not applicable in the general partnership solution, in the form that it has in the case example. We support this statement with reference to our legal inquiry and referring to some speculations on the subject.Our conclusion is that it would be difficult to deal with the real estate companies that have made use of the general partnership solution, at least in the construction that exists in the case example. It is up to the legislator to decide on whether to prevent this type of tax arrangement or not.
School:Högskolan i Jönköping
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:corporate tax law the general partnership solution evasion under prised transfer capital gain loss
Date of Publication:02/12/2007