Estudo clínico-laboratorial e histopatológico de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania chagasi com diferentes graus de manifestação física

by Vidal Coutinho, José Flávio

Abstract (Summary)
Canine Visceral Leishmania (CVL) is an important zoonotic disease that has a world wide distribution and has a large impact on public health on the American Continent, especially in Brazil, where the nature of endemic diseases in humans affects a large part of the nation. The influence of the prevalence of CVL in the increased rate of human cases in endemic areas and in the unleashing of epidemic outbreaks shows the need for a more profound understanding, that would generate significant advances in the current measures used to control the reservoirs of sickness that are practiced by the Programa Nacional de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral. The present work describes and compares the clinical-laboratorial and histopathological findings of twenty-three dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi, from endemic areas in metropolitan Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. These animals, that were selected and given physical and serological exams (IFI and ELISA rK-39), were classified according to the degree of clinical severity and had blood samples drawn (whole blood and serum) for a complete hemogram and a coagulogram to be done as well as biochemical tests for kidney and liver function. The confirmation of infection by L. chagasi was done after the euthanasia of the animals, through the direct demonstration of the parasite in the impression of the spleen and liver crowned with GIEMSA and through a cultivation by means of NNN/Schneider. According to the clinical evaluation, the animals were classified as asymptomatic (7), oligosymptomatic (7) and polysymptomatic (9). Among the animals that were chosen to be autopsied, there were 2 asymptomatic, 3 oligosymptomatic and 3 polysymptomatic, for the purpose of studying their histopathology, having collected fragments of the spleen, liver, kidneys and skin and were fixed in 10% tamponed formol. The comparison between the average parameters of the clinical-laboratory tested animals in the groups was done through the Student t test (a<0.05). The main clinical signals observed were lymphadenomegaly, alopecy, dermatitis, exfoliation, cutaneous ulcers, onicogriphosis and emaciation. The main clinical-laboratorial alterations established, mainly in the polysymptomatic group, were anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, alterations in the albumin/globulin ratio and increased ALT activity. Renal alterations were not verified (urea and creatinine levels were normal). Thrombocytopenia was observed in three clinical groups. However, the other indicators of coagulation function (TAP and TTPA) did not have abnormal variations. There were inflammatory infiltrations and leishmania amastigotes in the skin of polysymptomatic dogs, however, they were not found in the skin of asymptomatic animals. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the phagocyte mononuclear system, leishmania amastigote parasites were found in the macrophages, extramedullary hematopoiesis and degenerative alterations were detected in the spleen and liver of 8 of the animals submitted to histopathological exams. In accord with these results, it was demonstrated that the expected alterations in the hematological and biochemical parameters in function of their viscerotropic nature of CVL are mainly observed in the more advanced stages of the disease. The absence of inflammatory infiltration and parasite load in the skin suggest that infected animals without symptoms may have an importance irrelevant to the infectiousness of the vector
This document abstract is also available in Portuguese.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde; Fernanda Wanderley de Oliveira; Maria de Fátima F. de Melo Ximenes

School:Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

School Location:Brazil

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:Leishmania chagasi Canine visceral leishmnia


Date of Publication:02/28/2005

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