Estudio de las complicaciones perianulares en la endocarditis infecciosa. Análisis de aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, ecocardiográficos, terapéuticos y pronósticos en pacientes con abscesos perianulares y fístulas aorto-cavitarias en la endocarditis complicada.
SUMMARY: Title: "The study of periannular complications in infective endocarditis. Analysis of clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of patients with non-ruptured periannular abscesses and with aorto-cavitary fistulous tract formation in IE" Infective endocarditis (IE) is a devastating disease associated with high death rates without appropriate treatment. The prognosis of IE has changed dramatically during the last three decades due to the use of potent antibiotics and the generalization of surgical therapies of valve repair. Infective endocarditis is characterized by the infection of the endothelium of cardiac valves caused by virulent organisms, and the elevated morbidity and mortality is produced by the destruction of valvular tissue and adjacent structures. In the modern era, one-year mortality of native valve IE is in the range of 20% - 30%, and 10-year survival is in the range of 70%-80%. Spread of infection in IE from valvular structures to the surrounding perivalvular tissue results in periannular complications. Periannular complications, including periannular abscess formation and aorto-cavitary fistulous (ACF) tract formation have not been adequately studied, and may place the patient at increased risk of adverse outcomes including heart failure (HF) and death. Aorto-cavitary fistulous tract formation has only been described occasionally. The main objectives of the present investigation were to investigate the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of patients with non-ruptured periannular abscesses and with aorto-cavitary fistulous tract formation in IE and to determine the prognostic impact of fistulization in patients with periannular lesions in the setting of IE. Several manuscripts including a large number of patients with periannular lesions have been published describing the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of mortality of patients with periannular lesions in IE. Aorto-cavitary fistula is an uncommon complication of aortic IE associated with extensive aortic root destruction and presence of periannular abscesses. Transesophageal echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice for the detection of aorto-cavitary fistulae in both native and prosthetic valves. Despite aggressive surgical treatment, rates of heart failure and mortality are high. Prosthetic IE, urgent surgery and the development of heart failure were associated with an increased risk of death in patients with endocarditis complicated by fistulous tract formation. ACF formation in the course of IE is associated with higher rates of aortic annulus destruction and heart failure compared to non-ruptured abscess. Surgery and mortality rates for both complications were very high; however, despite the higher complications, ACF in the current era of high rates of surgical therapy was not an independent risk factor for mortality. Periannular abscess formation occurs frequently in aortic valve IE, is associated with staphylococcal etiology, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In the current era of TEE imaging and high use of surgical treatment periannular abscess formation in aortic valve IE is not an independent risk factor for mortality. Finally, S. aureus infection constitutes an independent prognostic factor for mortality in patients who develop an abscess.
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Advisor:Miró Meda, José M.; Sanz Romero, Ginés
School:Universitat de Barcelona
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:03/28/2006