Electrochromic Properties of Iridium Oxide Based Thin Films
Electrochromic iridium oxide (IrOx) and iridium-tantalum oxide (IrTaOx) thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. Composition, density, and structure were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The electronic density of states (DOS) and the solid phase chemical diffusion coefficient (D) were determined for hydrogen in IrOx and IrTaOx by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The complex refractive indices were determined for colored and bleached IrOx and IrTaOx by inverting transmission and reflectance, measured using spectrophotometry in the 300-2500 nm wavelength range.A very porous structure, with a stoichiometry of IrO2.2, was found for IrOx. It contained ~4 nm sized grains. The IrTaOx had a denser structure built up by ~4 nm sized grains. The composition of IrTaOx was found to vary on a nanometer scale, with an average composition of IrTa1.4O5.6.It was found that DOS can be measured using PITT and EIS in the presence of spontaneous side reactions, even for systems influenced by non-negligible charge transfer kinetics and Ohmic drops. It was found that the measured DOS is 30-50% of the theoretically calculated DOS and that D is in the 10-10 – 10-11 cm2/s range for both materials. The hydrogen diffusion mechanism was described by an anomalous diffusion model, possibly indicating percolation or diffusion paths described by a fractal network.The refractive indices were found to be ~1.3 and ~2 for IrOx and IrTaOx, respectively, and independent of coloration state, whereas the extinction coefficients were found to modulate by ~30% for IrOx and ~50% for IrTaOx, making IrTaOx more favorable for electrochromic applications. A modulation peak was found at ~660 nm for both IrOx and IrTaOx associated with the removal of intraband transitions within the Ir t2g band.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:Engineering physics; Electrochromism; iridium oxide; hydrogen intercalation; chemical diffusion coefficient; density of states; optical modulation; Teknisk fysik
Date of Publication:01/01/2008