by Jacob, Doreen K

Abstract (Summary)
ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF MUSCLES WITH APPLICATION TO FACIAL PARALYSIS Doreen K Jacob, MSME University of Pittsburgh, 2004 Facial nerve paralysis is a condition that is typically caused by injury to the seventh cranial facial nerve that controls the muscle movements and expressions of the face. Bells palsy is a condition due to facial paralysis. The most common cause of this ailment is the herpes simplex virus type 1, which causes inflammation. As the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) passes through the narrow fallopian canal, it inflames, becomes constricted and prevents transmission of signals from the facial nerve to the muscles of the face. When the facial nerve is compressed, visible defects including sagging of the eyelid, cheek and mouth occurs. The major concern with this type of nerve damage, however, is the loss of dynamic blink of the eye. The eyelid also serves as a shield from tiny foreign material. The inability to blink may result in damaging conditions that include dry eyes, infections and visual impairment. There are a number of treatments to help protect the eye, however, no treatments are able to restore the eye blink. In order to reanimate the eye, the orbicularis muscle must be stimulated by another means, such as electrical stimulus. Therefore in the present research, different levels of current will be used to stimulate the gastrocnemius leg muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats to determine the optimum range of current that elicits a muscle contraction without causing damage to the tissue. These experiments will be performed using a specialized Mass Immunization Device, which pulses current to simulate an eye blink and calculates the resistance of the muscle tissue during each pulse. The range of current tested was between 0.010 and 8 milliamps. Based n the experimental results, the tissue resistance was found to decrease with higher levels of currents. For the application targeted in this project, current at the micro amperage level is preferred so that tissue damage does not result.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Dr. Roy Marangoni; Dr. Marlin Mickle; Dr. Michael Lovell

School:University of Pittsburgh

School Location:USA - Pennsylvania

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:mechanical engineering


Date of Publication:06/09/2004

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