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Effekt der Bandstruktur von Cu(111)- und Cu(110)-Oberflächen auf den resonanten Ladungstransfer bei streifender Streuung

by Hecht, Thomas

Abstract (Summary)
This thesis investigates the influence of the electronic band structure of single crystal surfaces on the resonant charge transfer between solid and atomic projectiles. Atoms and ions were scattered off Cu(111)- and Cu(110) surfaces under grazing incidence conditions with angles of incidence between 0.5 to 4 degrees. Projectile velocities were varied between 0.05 and 1.4 atomic units. In this regime no penetration of the projectile into the solid occurs. Instead, the projectile is reflected from the crystal surface. Therefore the charge state distribution of scattered projectiles can be investigated as a function of the incidence conditions. According to theoretical predictions this charge state distribution strongly depends on the electronic band structure of the surface. The experiments were performed on 2 different Cu surfaces. While the Cu(110) surface can be well described by the free electron gas model (also refered to as jellium model), the Cu(111) surface is characterized by a bandgap around the Fermi energy and a surface state within this bandgap. To investigate the effect of the electronic band structure on the resonant charge transfer between solids and atoms/ions, the projectiles were choosen in a way that the atomic valence state is in resonance to the bandgap. In particular the formation of negative hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, oxygen, carbon and sulfur ions as well as the population of ground and excited states of lithium, sodium and potassium in front of Cu(110) and Cu(111) surfaces was investigated. The neutralization of highly charged (up to 21 times positively charged) xenon ions in front of a Cu(111) surface was studied as well. A significant impact of the band structure of the Cu(111) surface has been theoretically predicted for the formation of negatively charged hydrogen ions. From wave packet propagation calculations 6% negative hydrogen ions are expected in front of a Cu(111) surface, compared to 0.3% that are expected for a jellium surface of the same work function and Fermi level. The experimental result of 1% confirms a significant influence of the electronic band structure on the charge exchange. The shape of the velocity dependence of the negative ion yield, in particular the width of this dependence, implies a dominant contribution of the surface state to resonant charge exchange in compliance with the theoretical predicition. The discrepancy between experimental data and theoretical prediction is explained by taking an additional electron loss channel into account. The consideration of scattering from electrons in the solid conduction band significantly improves the agreement between experimental and theoretical data. The investigation of the neutralization of the alkali atoms lithium, sodium and potassium confirms a significant influence of the electronic band structure of the Cu(111) surface on the resonant charge transfer. Significantly higher yields of neutralized projectiles as compared to the prediction of the jellium model are found. Furthermore the parallel velocity dependences of the neutral atom yield shows maxima or shoulder structures which are qualitavely reproduced by wave packet propagation calculations. The formation of negative halogen ions shows less pronounced effects of the Cu(111) surface band structure. However, also for these projectils a significant influence of the band structure on the resonant charge transfer is experimentaly confirmed. This holds as well for the formation of negatively charged oxygen, carbon and sulfur ions. The investigation of the resonant charge transfer in front of a Cu(110)surface resulted for all ions investigated in a good agreement between experiment and theory. The experimental results presented in the framework of this thesis show, that the electronic band structure of the Cu(111) surface has a substantiell impact on the resonant charge transfer. This has been presented in a particularly convincing way by the investigation of negative hydrogen ion and neutral alkali atom formation in front of a Cu(111) surface. The cogency of the experimental results is improved by the good agreement between the experimental results achieved at the Cu(110) surface and the theoretical prediction for a jellium metal.
This document abstract is also available in German.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

School Location:Germany

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:resonanter Ladungsaustausch Bandlücke resonant charge transfer ion surface scattering band gap copper UP 4000

ISBN:

Date of Publication:10/25/2000

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