Effects of lupin kernel flour on satiety and features of the metabolic syndrome
[Truncated abstract] Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. More than half the Australian population is now overweight. This is an important public health concern primarily because of the impact of overweight and obesity on risk of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Many strategies have been proposed to fight the obesity epidemic. One possible strategy involves understanding of the role of dietary components in the control of food intake. In this regard, dietary protein and fibre appear to be the most satiating nutrients. Foods enriched in protein, replacing energy from carbohydrate, or dietary fibre can increase satiety and reduce energy intake in the short-term. Longer-term trials suggest benefits of increasing protein or fibre intake on weight loss and features of the metabolic syndrome. The effects of dietary approaches which increase both protein and fibre at the expense of refined carbohydrate are uncertain. A practical approach to increasing both protein and fibre content of processed foods is to incorporate high protein and fibre ingredients into high carbohydrate foods. Lupin kernel flour is a novel food ingredient derived from the endosperm of lupin. It contains 40 to 45% protein, 25 to 30% fibre, and negligible sugar and starch. Lupin kernel flour can be incorporated into refined carbohydrate rich foods such as bread to increase protein and fibre content at the expense of refined carbohydrate. ... Body weight was measured every 2 weeks throughout the 16 week intervention, and these data were analysed to determine whether there was any between group difference in the rate of change in weight over 16 weeks. Over 16 weeks, lupin bread compared to white bread resulted in a significant increase in protein (13.7 (2.3, 25.0) g/d) and fibre (12.5 (8.8, 16.2) g/d) intakes, and a decrease in carbohydrate intake (-19.9 (-45.2, 5.5) g/d). There was a significant difference between groups in the rate of weight change over the 16 weeks (P=0.05). However, at 16 weeks there was no significant effect on body weight (-0.4 (-1.3, 0.6) kg), fat mass (-0.5 (-1.2, 0.2) kg) or fat free mass (0.2 (-0.5, 0.8) kg). Plasma adiponectin and leptin were not altered. Mean 24 hour systolic blood pressure (-2.4 (-3.4, -1.3) mm Hg) and pulse pressure (-3.1 (-3.9, -2.3) mm Hg) were lower for lupin relative to white bread, but diastolic blood pressure was not significantly different between groups. Apart from a lower HDL cholesterol for lupin relative to white bread (-0.09 (-0.17, -0.01) mmol/L), there were no significant differences in other blood lipids and glucose and insulin concentrations. Interpretation of the results was not influenced after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These studies assessed effects of bread enriched in lupin kernel flour relative to white bread, resulting in a higher protein and fibre intake and lower refined carbohydrate intake. This increased satiety and reduced energy intake acutely, but did not significantly influence body weight over 16 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced. There were no significant improvements in blood lipids or glucose and insulin concentrations. Therefore, increasing protein and fibre intake at the expense of refined carbohydrate using lupin kernel flour may benefit satiety and blood pressure. Longer-term trials incorporating weight loss may be needed to observe benefits on body weight.
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:lupinus angustifolius nutrition fiber in human proteins carbohydrates energy metabolism metabolic syndrome obesity australia lupin kernel flour overweight satiety
Date of Publication:01/01/2008