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Effects of aerobic vs. resistive exercise on glucose transporter proteins and insulin sensitivity in obese nondiabetic female first-degree relatives of African American patients with type 2 diabetes

by Gaillard, Trudy R.

Abstract (Summary)
Background: Chronic physical activity has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity (IS) and lower rates of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). There have been no studies that examined the effects of aerobic (AT) and resistive (RT) training in obese, sedentary African Americans (AA) females, who are genetically predisposed to develop T2DM. Thus, the objectives of the present study were; 1) determine the effects of AT vs. RT on glucose transporter proteins (GLUT4) and insulin sensitivity; and 2) examine the impact of genetic inheritance (family history {FH}) on these indices. Methodology: Twenty (20) AA with FH were randomly assigned to 12weeks (12wks) of AT[(70% of VO2max) (n=10)] or RT[(70% of 1 (RM) (n=10)]. Ten(10) AA females without FH served as reference controls [(CN) (n=10)]. OGTT (glucose, insulin, c-peptide), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were obtained in each subject. IS was measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was assessed via BOD POD. Each subject completed a V02max test and 1 repetition maximal (1RM) for chest press(CP) and leg press(LP). Skeletal muscle biopsy for GLUT4 was randomly obtained in a sub-set of each group. Baseline measurements were repeated in subjects with FH after 12wks. Results: The fasting plasma glucose, insulin and c-peptide, HOMA-IR, SBP, DBP, %body fat, were statistically higher in subjects with FH vs. CN. The mean V02max and %lean body mass was statistically lower in our subjects with FH vs. CN. Twelve weeks of AT significantly reduced the SBP and DBP, whereas, RT significant increased body strength. HOMA-IR was not changed by AT or RT. The GLUT4 was not different among our groups. RT was associated with a 24.8% increase in GLUT4 whereas, AT decreased GLUT4 by 10.8% from baseline, but these values were not statistically significant. Summary: Obese AA females with FH of T2DM have greater %body fat, insulin resistance, significantly higher BP and lower V02max when compared to healthy aged-matched AA controls without FH. The two exercise modalities had significant but varying effects on hemodynamic parameters. AT vs. RT had no effects on metabolic or anthropometric parameters measured in our previously sedentary obese AA females.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:The Ohio State University

School Location:USA - Ohio

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:aerobic vs resistive exercise insulin sensitivity glucose transport african american females

ISBN:

Date of Publication:01/01/2005

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