The Effects of Therapeutic Touch on Pain Responses in Infants Receiving Immunizations

by Manahan, Mindy Lawree

Abstract (Summary)
This study explored the use of therapeutic touch as a prophylactic intervention to minimize the pain experienced by infants receiving multiple immunization injections. The history, philosophy, and practice of the modality and its physiological effects on the body’s energy field were discussed in a review of the literature. Seventeen infants, from a small rural immunization clinic, participated in the study. Each of the infants received multiple immunization injections, ranging from two to four injections, with the goal of preventing communicable diseases. One group of infants received therapeutic touch and one group, who served as the control, did not receive therapeutic touch. The treatment of therapeutic touch was provided by the researcher and observed by clinic nurses who were unaware of which group, either treatment or control, that the infants were assigned to. The infant’s pain response was recorded utilizing the PAIN (Pain Assessment in Neonates) scale. Scores were compared using t-tests. The results of the analysis were not significant, potentially due to numerous factors discussed under limitations of the study, although there was a statistical significance within the treatment group, when the pre- and post-treatment heart rates and oxygenation saturation levels were analyzed.
Bibliographical Information:


School:University of Toledo Health Science Campus

School Location:USA - Ohio

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:pain newborn


Date of Publication:01/01/2005

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