Effects of Smoking Cessation and Female Sex Hormones on Food Intake in Postmenopausal Women
Following smoking cessation, individuals increase their food intake. Women experience greater postcessation hyperphagia than men, and older women may increase their food intake more than younger women. Some research has suggested that postcessation increases in food intake may be macronutrient specific. However, previous investigations of macronutrient specific changes in food intake following smoking cessation have had significant methodological problems. The current study assessed changes in total food intake and macronutrient selection using the Macronutrient Self-Selection Paradigm (MSSP), a direct, laboratory based measure of food intake that is valid and reliable with respect to macronutrient intake. Fifty-five postmenopausal females completed the MSSP at baseline and within one month of smoking cessation. ANOVAs revealed that following smoking cessation women significantly increased their intake of total kcals, high fat food kcals, and high sugar food kcals. Further analysis indicated that the postcessation hyperphagia was primarily due to an increase in intake of kcals of foods high in both fat and sugar. To investigate the relationship between female sex hormones and postcessation hyperphagia, multiple regression analyses were conducted using estrone sulfate and estradiol to predict changes from baseline to postcessation for total kcals, high fat food kcals, high sugar food kcals, and high fat/high sugar food kcals. Estradiol levels did not enter the regression equation as a significant predictor for any of the dependent variables. Estrone sulfate levels predicted postcessation increases in intake of high sugar food kcals and high fat/high sugar food kcals. However, the relationship was in the opposite direction as hypothesized. To explore this unexpected finding, women who self-selected to use Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and women who did not use HRT were compared on measures of weight- and eating-related characteristics. Women who self-selected for HRT had a history of weighing more; had a greater BMI, waist measurement, and hip measurement; had more weight concern, less sense of efficacy over control of food intake, and a more disinhibited eating style. It is argued that these differences between HRT users and non-HRT users may explain the unexpected relationship between estrone sulfate and increases in food intake, although other explanations are also considered.
Advisor:Claire D Advokat; Paula J Geiselman; Amy Copeland
School:Louisiana State University in Shreveport
School Location:USA - Louisiana
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:11/03/2006