Efectes de l'ús de fonts exògenes de fitasa sobre els rendiments productius i valor nutricional de les dietes riques en polisacàrids no midó (NSP) en pollastres broilers, repercussions mediambientals
The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects on nutritive value and bird
performance of microbial phytase supplementation in different types of poultry diets, and its impact in the environment.
The aim of trial 1 was to evaluate and compare the effects of addition of microbial phytase on the improvement of performance, energy of diet and mineral retention in wheat- and corn-based diets. An additional objective was to define the optimum level of enzyme to be used in wheat-based diets.
Treatments were based on two different cereals (corn or wheat), two concentrations of NPP (4.5 and 2.7 g NPP/kg of diet), and different levels of phytase on phosphorus deficient diets. In phosphorus deficient corn-based diets, inclusion of phytase increased final body weight, average daily feed consumption, and toe ash concentration, and also increased total phosphorus and calcium retention. In wheat diets, phytase supplementation to P-deficient diets increased toe ash concentration, and coefficient of apparent total phosphorus retention increased from 0.53 in P normal diets to 0.69-0.73 in P deficient diets, but not calcium retention. Phytase supplementation did not vary mineral excretion in any studied diet. Based on the higher R2 values, final body weight and toe ash value were the most sensitive indicators to assess P availability. Linear equations were used to calculate P equivalency values of phytase for non-phytate P. Using the average function of released P by microbial phytase derived at NPP level of 2.7 g/kg, 605 U of phytase could be equivalent to 1 g of
P. In trial 2, broilers were used to evaluate the effects of a microbial phytase on the improvement of performance, dietary energy and mineral retention, in barley diets with or without endogenous phytase. Treatments were based on two different concentrations of non-phytate P (4.5 g/kg and 2.7g/kg), use of untreated or autoclaved barley, and addition or not of 500 U/kg feed of microbial phytase to the P-deficient diets. The reduction of NPP in broiler diets produced a decrease of daily feed intake and water consumption and a reduction of animal growth that was overcome by the inclusion of phytase enzyme in these feeds. Similar broiler performance was obtained feeding the animals with diets containing 4.5 g NPP/kg or with diets containing only 2.7 g NPP/kg plus 500 U phytase enzyme/kg. The concentration of toe ash, a good indicator of phosphorus deposition, varied according to the dietary content of phosphorus and the presence or not of microbial phytase enzyme. Plasma concentrations of phosphorus and calcium were also influenced by dietary P concentrations and the presence or not of exogenous phytase. The inclusion of phytase enzyme to diets with a low concentration of NPP increased the coefficient of phosphorus retention and reduced the presence of this element in broiler excreta by up to 45%, thus indicating a favourable environmental effect. In general, no effects were observed due to the presence or not of endogenous barley phytase. In trial 3, we studied the effects on phosphorus and other minerals bioavailability by addition of exogenous phytase in diets based on corn-soy bean plus wheat bran, according to the presence or not of endogenous phytase activity in wheat bran. Treatments varied in accordance with the wheat bran used (non treated or autoclaved), the concentration of wheat bran included in diet (0, 5 or 10%), and the amount of exogenous phytase (500 U per kilo of feed). Microbial phytase supplementation improved the productive parameters, although intestinal viscosity was no changed.
Energetic values of diets increased with the addition of phytase, but no important variations in nutrient digestibility were found. Microbial phytase increased plasmatic concentration of phosphorus and bone mineralization, which is reflected in an augment in the concentration of total phosphorus in toe ash, even though apparent retention and excretion of this mineral were no modified. Elimination of endogenous phytase from the wheat bran present in phosphorus deficient corn-based diets implied a lesser food intake and bird performance, and, also, a decrease in the NPP in plasma. Nutrient digestibilities and mineral retentions were no changed by elimination of endogenous phytase. The aim of trial 4 was to evaluate the animal performance and bioavailability of phosphorus and other minerals according the presence or not of endogenous phytase activity from wheat. The effects of some levels of exogenous phytase higher than usual were also studied. Treatments differed in wheat used (non treated or autoclaved), concentration of non-phytate phosphorus (4.5 and 2.7 g of NPP/kg of feed) and the concentration of exogenous phytase (0, 500 and 5000 U/kg of feed). Exogenous phytase supplementation in phosphorus deficient wheat-based diets and high endogenous phytase activity produced improvements in broiler performance with no effect on mineral retention and excretion. On the other hand, elimination of endogenous phytase produced some slight reductions in growth without influence in mineral retention. Presence of wheat phytase produced a better broiler performance and a higher feed and mineral intake, with effect neither in diet energy nor in phosphorus apparent retention and excretion. Addition of a higher dose of phytase did not influence broiler performance, but the effects were present in diet energy and in a bigger plasmatic concentration of NPP.
The effects of microbial phytase and glycosidase enzymes, and their interactions, on energy values and nutrient digestibility in diets rich in non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied in trial 5, designed as a three 2?2 factorial assays. Phytase was added or not to diets, with or without glycosidase enzymes (á-galactosidase, xylanase, or ?-glucanase for corn-, wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively). Glycosidases decreased intestinal viscosity, whereas phytase increased this parameter in corn diets. Phytase increased AME in corn diets, whereas ?-glucanase in barley diets improved AME and AMEn, and digestibility of dry matter, starch, ?-glucans, and lipid. Xylanase in wheat diets improved dry matter and starch digestibilities. Phytase increased total phosphorus retention in all diets, and significant interactions between glycosidase enzymes and phytase were detected in wheat and barley diets. Phytase decreased phosphorus excretion in corn and barley diets,
whereas á-galactosidase increased phosphorus excretion in corn diets. Calcium retention increased by phytase in corn diets and by ?-glucanase in barley diets, and, consequently, calcium excretion decreased by phytase in corn-based diets and by ?-glucanase in barley-based diets; xylanase inclusion decreased calcium retention in wheat diets. An interaction was detected between phytase and ?-glucanase in barley diets, in which calcium excretion was reduced. In general, no negative interactions between phytase and glycosidase enzymes were found, indicating that both types of enzymes may be used together in feeds based on corn, wheat or barley. The aim of the part six of the work was to confirm the determination of inositol phosphates by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of phosphorus (P31). The analysed samples correspond to the feed and intestinal contents of the five previous trials, while in trial 2 contents of crop, gizzard, and cloaca were also studied, since one of the aim was to assess the evolution of inositol phosphates in four sections of the digestive system. The obtained results showed that NMR of P31 was a good method to determine inositol phosphates with a high number of phosphates groups. The inositol phosphates with a lesser phosphate groups were not determined due to their very low concentration in samples. With the study of the hydrolysis of inositol phosphate through digestive system, a decrease in the concentration of inositol hexaphosphate to lower components could be observed, although the compounds with less than four phosphates groups were no observed. In general, there is a bigger profit of non-phytate phosphorus as a result of the hydrolysis. In general, microbial phytase added to phosphorus deficient diets showed an increment in retention of phosphorus and calcium, and, in consequence, a decrease in their excretion. An increment of animal performance has also observed, especially in diets with corn or barley. The increment in phosphorus retention by microbial phytase, due to the release of phytic acid, is corroborated in the spectra of NMR. In this work, and by NMR, we could observe as non phytate phosphorus keep on constant, being a higher phytate phosphorus retention that permits the increase of total phosphorus retention. Elimination of endogenous phytase has not influenced animal performance or digestibility and retention of nutrients for broilers chickens that consumed phosphorus deficient diets. Microbial phytase seemed to be more efficient than vegetal phytase in digestive tract, according to the low activity observed in vegetal phytase. No negative interactions between phytase and carbohidrase enzymes in phosphorus deficient and non-starch polysaccharides rich-diets have been observed. Positive interactions related to mineral retention and excretion were found in some cases, and only a negative interaction for feed to gain ratio in corn diets was observed. So, this two class of enzymes could be combined with no effects on performance or health of birds.
Advisor:Anna M. Pérez Vendrell
School:Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:departament de bioquímica i biotecnologia
Date of Publication:10/06/2004