Dopant diffusion in Si and SiGe
Dopant diffusion in semiconductors is an interestingphenomenon from both technological and scientific points ofview. Firstly, dopant diffusion is taking place during most ofthe steps in electronic device fabrication and, secondly,diffusion is related to fundamental properties of thesemiconductor, often controlled by intrinsic point defects:self-interstitials and vacancies. This thesis investigates thediffusion of P, B and Sb in Si as well as in strained andrelaxed SiGe. Most of the measurements have been performedusing secondary ion mass spectrometry on high purityepitaxially grown samples, having in-situ incorporated dopantprofiles, fabricated by reduced pressure chemical vapordeposition or molecular beam epitaxy. The samples have beenheat treated both under close-to-equilibrium conditions (i. e.,long time annealings in an inert ambient) and conditions whichresulted in non-equilibrium diffusion (i. e., vacuum annealing,oxidation, short annealing duration, and protonirradiation).Equilibrium P and B diffusion coefficients in Si asdetermined in this thesis differ from a substantial part ofpreviously reported values. This deviation may be attributed toslow transients before equilibrium concentrations of pointdefects are established, which have normally not been takeninto account previously. Also an influence of extrinsic dopingconditions may account for the scattering of the diffusivityvalues reported in literature. B and Sb diffusion in Si underproton irradiation at elevated temperatures was found to obeythe so-called intermittent model. Parameters describing themicroscopic diffusion process were derived in terms of theintermittent diffusion mechanism, and it was found also thatthe presence of Sb strongly affected the B diffusion and viceversa.In relaxed Si1-xGex-alloys, which has the same lattice structure as Sibut a larger lattice constant, P diffusion is found to increasewith increasing Ge content (x? 0.2). In Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures, wherethe SiGe layer is biaxially strained in order to comply withthe smaller lattice parameter of Si, P diffusion in thestrained layer is retarded as compared with relaxed materialhaving the same Ge content. In addition, P is found tosegregate into the Si layer via the Si/SiGe interface and thesegregation coefficient increases with increasing Ge content inthe SiGe layer.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Date of Publication:01/01/2004