Distribution of Heavy Metals and Simulation of Ocean Disposal of Harbor Sediments
The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments, especially those at the vicinity of tributary estuaries of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from six locations in the Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in the period from 2002 to 2005 and characterized for metal content (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Al), water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that metal concentrations varied from 0.58 mg kg-1 for Cd to 596 mg kg-1 for Zn. Metal concentrations at the vicinity of river mouths were higher than those at other locations. All heavy metals studied, except Cr, had relatively high enrichment factors and geo-accumulation indices in the estuaries. Moreover, metal concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which strongly suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results would help develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of Kaohsiung Harbor.
Ocean disposal of wastes such as dredged sediments causes the concentrations of contaminants and some other water quality parameters in the water column to change. In this study, the STFATE (Short-term Fate) system, a model developed by the US Corps of Engineers for managing automatic dredging and disposal of the dredged materials, was used to model and simulate the deposition, dispersion and accumulation of the dredged material disposed at an ocean site. Additionally, aerial photographs taken from a helicopter on dispersion of the disposed sediments were used to calibrate and verify the modeling results for evaluating its applicability in predicting the influence of disposing dredged sediments on the surrounding seawater quality. Simulation results indicate that after 4 h of ocean disposal, the dredged sediment showed negligible adverse influence on the seawater quality (SS = 3 ¡V 4 mg/L). Results of simulating the dispersion of dredged sediments revealed that 20 seconds disposal duration resulted in smaller influence distance and range but a longer time for the seawater to recover to its original state. A longer disposal time of 1,200 seconds would cause a larger distance and range of influence but a shorter recovery time. The verification results demonstrate that simulated values on the dispersion length, width, area and shape generally comfort to the trends of monitored data; the average error is around 27.8%.
Advisor:Chih-ming Kao; Cary T Chiou; Cheng-di Dong; Suen-zone Lee; Ming-shean Chou; Yung-hsu Hsieh
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:mathematical modeling short term fate ocean disposal enrichment factor heavy metals geo accumulation indices sediments
Date of Publication:11/18/2006