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Dispersant effectiveness data for a suite of environmental conditions [electronic resource] /

by Chandrasekar, Subhashini.; Theses and, OhioLINK Electronic

Abstract (Summary)
The use of chemical dispersants to combat the effects of oil spills has been gaining worldwide acceptance recently. Dispersants are made of surfactants, solvents and additives. When applied to an oil slick, dispersants reduce the interfacial surface tension and disperse the oil into into tiny oil droplets in the underlying water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, U.S EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill (ERO³ S) model to simulate a portion of the oil slick behavior. Due to interactions between spilled oils and the sea however, the behavior of oil spills must be based upon empirical data. So the main aim of this research work was to create a set of empirical data on three oils and two dispersants that has the potential for use as an input to the ERO³ S model. Three oils representing a range of light refined oil, light crude oil and medium crude oil were chosen for study. Two dispersants with similar characteristics but supplied by different manufacturers were chosen for evaluation. A factorial experimental design was conducted in order to determine which of the factors such as temperature, oil type, oil weathering, dispersant type, rotation speed of the Baffled Flask Test (BFT) and salinity of sea water are related to the effectiveness of a dispersant used in oil remediation. Replicates were conducted for all the experiments. This research work has successfully created a set of empirical data on three oils and two dispersants that could serve as an input to the oil spill simulation models being developed by EPA. The empirical correlation for the collected experimental data predicted within a good accuracy the effectiveness of the dispersant. The results of this research are expected to provide a guidance to dispersant usage on oil spills.
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School:University of Cincinnati

School Location:USA - Ohio

Source Type:Master's Thesis

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