<> Rolle der Mastzelle im zytokinen Netzwerk der Haut
Mast cells are ubiquitary connective tissue cells derived from bone marrow CD34+/c-Kit+ stem cells. They are able to produce various regulators of physiological and pathological processes. Normally, they are present in low numbers with highest density in skin and nasal, ophthalmic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary mucosa. The number is increased up to 100-fold in various pathological processes as inflammatory reactions and atopic diseases. During this processes mast cell precursors from peripheral blood are activated, migrate in the tissues by the effects of chemotactically acting factors. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in this processes, we established different in vitro cell culture models. Our results suggest that the precursor cells circulating in the peripheral blood do not express c-Kit. When the cells are activated, c-Kit expression is upregulated and the cells are able to migrate in the tissue, where they differentiate influenced by cytokines released from tissue cells. The interaction between mast cells and fibroblasts, melanocytes, keratinocytes and nerve cells were studied. Stem cell factor, GM-CSF, nerve growth factor and other neurotrophins as BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 could be demonstrated as mediators of this interactions. The regulation and release of these factors are modified in pathological skin diseases as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, changes in the hair cycle and skin tumors and in wound healing. Modulation of expression of these factors and its receptors by therapeutics as glucocorticoids, antihistamines, retinoids and UV-radiation was shown in different culture models. Our results may contribute to develop new therapeutics for skin, pulmonary and intestinal diseases and give new insights in mast cell functions in brain, liver and kidney.
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School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Source Type:Master's Thesis
stem cell factor
Date of Publication:10/23/2003