Development of New Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Strategies: Formation and Reactivity of sp³-gem-Organodimetallic Palladium(II)/MRn Alkane Intermediates (MRn=Dialkylalumino, Trialkylstannyl)
On the one hand, geminal ?-allylpalladio(II)/tributylstannylalkane intermediates are produced by oxidative addition of Pd(0) catalysts to ?-tributylstannylpropenyl acetate derivatives. They adopt ambiphilic behaviour depending on the transition metal pre-catalyst, presence or absence of phosphine ligands, and reaction temperature. In presence of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) with additional bidentate ligand, the carbenoid reactivity of these gem-organobismetallic species is exposed by reaction with dimethyl malonate. Deuterium-labeling studies demonstrated sequential functionalisation of the C-Sn and C-Pd bonds. Conversely, phosphine-free catalyst bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium(0) uncovers metal-carbene reactivity, and dimerisation and strained alkene cyclopropanation reactions are observed. The nature of the palladium catalyst controls the reactivity of the carbenoid species. Finally, bis(cyclooctadienerhodium(I) chloride) catalytically activates the alkenylstannane moiety, leaving the allylic acetate leaving group available for further transformations.
On the other hand, gem-disubstituted trifluoromethanesulfonyloxy- and iodopalladio(II)/ dialkylaluminoneopentane species are generated by intramolecular migratory insertion of 2,2-disubstituted-1-butenyldialkylalanes with ?-arylpalladium(II) triflate and iodide intermediates. Using excess Lewis-basic 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, electron-rich tris(para-methoxyphenyl)phosphine ligand and acetonitrile as solvent, tandem arylation/1,2-alkyl migration from aluminum to carbon affords 7-substituted-1-ethyl-1-methylindanes containing an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre in good yields. This reaction is tolerant of 6-aryl methyl ethers, thioethers and trimethylsilanes. Deuterium labeling established that protiodealumination of the key neopentyl(methyl)aluminum triflate intermediate is caused by the acetonitrile solvent. The organodimetallic species in that study were shown to be configurationally stable, hence the stereospecificity of the process that proceeds via carbopalladation, transmetalation and reductive elimination of an alkylpalladium(II) intermediate.
When applied to 1-naphthyl triflate-tethered vinylalanes, the same reaction conditions mediate stereospecific 1,2-diarylation, leading to 2,3,3a,4-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthrenes in excellent yields. The influence of DABCO, tether length and solvent polarity was studied. Selective tandem arylation/1,2-methyl migration could also be achieved in non-polar solvent in absence of Lewis base. While steric properties took precedence over electronic considerations when inducing product selection, preagostic C-H···Pd interactions were postulated to facilitate 1,3-metal migration in the production of 1H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene derivatives.
School:University of Waterloo
School Location:Canada - Ontario
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:palladium aluminum tin stannane alane methodology mechanistic studies stereospecific ligand migration all carbon quaternary benzylic stereocentre bond formation carbopalladation cyclopropanation allylation dimerisation c h insertion deuterium labeling chemistry
Date of Publication:11/07/2006