Determination of representative spectra for the characterization of waste from a 450 GeV proton accelerator (SPS, CERN) Determinering av representativa spektrum för karaktärisering av avfall från en 450 GeV protonaccelerator (SPS, CERN)
Radioactive waste has been accumulated at CERN as unavoidable consequence of the use of particle accelerators. The elimination of this waste towards the ?nal repositories in France and Switzerland requires the determination of the radionuclide inventory. In order to calculate the residual induced radioactivity in the waste, it is necessary to determine the spectra of secondary particles which are responsible for the material activation. In complex irradiation environments like in an accelerator tunnel it is expected that the secondary particle spectra vary with the characteristics of the machine components in a given section of tunnel. In order to obtain the production rates of the radionuclides of interest the spectra of secondary particles are to be folded with the appropriate cross sections. Though technically feasible, it would be impractical to calculate the particle spectra in every area of any machine and for all possible beam loss mechanisms. Moreover, a fraction of the waste has unknown radiological history, which makes it impossible to associate an item of waste to a precise area of the machine. Therefore it is useful to try to calculate “representative spectra”, which shall apply to a relatively large part of the accelerator complex at CERN. This thesis is dedicated to the calculation of representative spectra in the arcs of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron, SPS, at CERN. The calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. Extensive simulations have been done to assess the dependence of proton, neutron and pion spectra on beam energy, size of the nearby machine component and position with respect to the beam-loss point. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to de?ne one single set of representative spectra for all the arcs of the SPS accelerator, with a minor error associated with the use of these.
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:nduced radioactivity radioactive waste cern characterization particle spectra nuclear physics kärnfysik
Date of Publication:01/01/2009