DINÂMICA DE CURTO PRAZO DA MACROFAUNA BENTÔNICA EM UMA ENSEADA ESTUARINA DA LAGOA DOS PATOS: EFEITOS ANTRÓPICOS E MECANISMOS DE PERSISTÊNCIA E RESILIÊNCIA.
The present study aims to analyze the short-term dynamics of the Patos Lagoon estuarine soft-bottom macrobenthic community subjected to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as to assess the mechanisms of persistence and resilience of some estuarine species. Chapter 1 aims at evaluating the effects of two different shrimp artisanal trawling nets (Coca and Berimbau nets) upon the soft-bottom macrobenthic associations, through a field experiment conducted in the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon. The experiment, performed with two treatments (Coca and Berimbau net trawling) and a control, where no trawling was performed, was conducted in seven stages, where benthic samples (six replicates in each treatment) were taken in different times after trawling. The results of the distinct statistical analysis used were not conclusive due the difficulty in showing clear effects on the soft bottom community. During the study period, about 3 months, were identified temporal changes on the structure of benthic associations, which were better analyzed in the Chapter 2. This chapter aimed to assess short-term macrobenthic dynamics during summer-fall period (when the main benthic recruitment processes occur), relating it to the short-term changes in: salinity, precipitation, water column depth, wind intensity, direction and changes in sediment granulometry and organic matter. The short-term benthic macrofauna variability was studied: 1) during summer of 2002; 2) during two periods between summer and beginning of fall of 2004; and 3) between these three periods carried out in different years. Short-term variability, in each period, was carried out in seven stages, through samples in different time scales (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 328days) after the initial sampling (day 0 = stage 1). Six macrobenthic samples were taken in each stage and sampling periods. The results showed significant differences in the benthic macrofauna structure starting from 15 days, and the environmental variables measured, reflecting meteorological factors, are of great importance for determining temporal benthic fauna fluctuations. The Chapter 3 aimed at joining published and unpublished information about adaptation strategies of some macrobenthic estuarine resident species from Patos Lagoon, assessing the relationships between its persistence and resilience mechanisms and natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Data about Erodona mactroides (bivalvia), Heleobia australis (gastropoda), Laeonereis acuta (polychaeta), Kalliapseudes schubartii (tanaid) and Melita mangrovi (amphipod) adaptation strategies showed evident persistence and resilience mechanisms, such as spawn protection, massive recruitments, many cohorts a year, settlement in many habitats which offer food and shelter against predators, escape mechanisms in unfavorable situations, among others.
Advisor:Carlos Emílio Bemvenuti; Fernando D'Incao; Luiz Felipe Hax Niencheski; Paulo Roberto Armanini Tagliani; Sergio Antonio Netto
School:Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:09/29/2005