Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in the Metabolism of Cholesterol and Cholesterol Derivatives
Cholesterol is metabolized to a variety of important biological products in the body including bile acids and vitamin D. The present investigation is focused on enzymes that catalyze 7?-hydroxylation or 27-hydroxylation in the metabolism of cholesterol, oxysterols (side chain-hydroxylated derivatives of cholesterol) and vitamin D3. The enzymes studied belong to the cytochrome P450 enzyme families CYP7 and CYP27.The study describes purification of a cytochrome P450 enzyme fraction active in 7?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone from pig liver microsomes. Peptide sequence analysis indicated that this enzyme fraction contains an enzyme belonging to the CYP7B subfamily. The purified enzyme was not active towards cholesterol or testosterone. Purification and inhibition experiments suggested that hepatic microsomal 7? -hydroxylation of 27-hydroxycholesterol and dehydroepiandrosterone involves at least two enzymes, probably closely related.The study shows that recombinantly expressed human and rat cholesterol 7? -hydroxylase (CYP7A) and partially purified pig liver cholesterol 7? -hydroxylase are active towards 20(S)-, 24-, 25- and 27-hydroxycholesterol. CYP7A was previously considered specific for cholesterol and cholestanol. The 7? -hydroxylation of 20(S)-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol in rat liver was significantly increased by treatment with cholestyramine, an inducer of CYP7A. Cytochrome P450 of renal origin showed 7? -hydroxylase activity towards 25- and 27-hydroxycholesterol, dehydroepiaundrosterone and pregnenolone but not towards 20(S)-, 24-hydroxycholesterol or cholesterol. The results indicate a physiological role for CYP7A as an oxysterol 7? -hydroxylase, in addition to the previously known human oxysterol 7? -hydroxylase CYP7B.The role of renal sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A) in the bioactivation of vitamin D3 was studied with cytochrome P450 fractions purified from pig kidney mitochondria. Purification and inhibition experiments and experiments with a monoclonal antibody against CYP27A indicated that CYP27A plays a role in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 l ? -hydroxylation.The expression of CYP7A, CYP7B and CYP27A during development was studied. The levels of CYP27A in livers of newborn and six months old pigs were similar whereas the levels of CYP7A increased. The expression of CYP7B varied depending on the tissue. The expression of CYP7B increased with age in the liver whereas the CYP7B levels in kidney showed a marked age-dependent decrease.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:PHARMACY; Biopharmacy; Pharmaceutical biosciences; Farmaceutisk biovetenskap; Pharmaceutical Biochemistry; farmaceutisk biokemi
Date of Publication:01/01/2000