Crystallization of colloidal TPA-silicalite-1 by a two-stage varying-temperature synthesis
Abstract (Summary)A novel synthesis method called a two-stage varying-temperature synthesis was developed for the investigation of kinetics and mechanism of the crystallization of discrete colloidal crystals of TPA-silicalite-1. Briefly, this method involves a rapid change in treatment temperature at some point during the crystallization. By extending the duration of the period at the initial synthesis temperature, the crystal concentration and final crystal size varied until they were approximately equal to those obtained for a complete synthesis at the initial temperature. At this point in the crystallization, it was concluded that the nucleation stage was completed. In the TPAOH-TEOS-H2O system, the nucleation was a continuous process and the rate of nucleation was initially high immediately after the start of hydrothermal treatment, but then exponentially declined throughout the nucleation period. In the TPAOH-SiO2-H2O-ethanol system, where SiO2 was colloidal amorphous silica, the nucleation was still a successive process, whereas the nucleation profile was more similar to that usually considered to occur during zeolite syntheses with an autocatalytic increase in the nucleation rate. When the synthesis conditions were identical, except for the silica source in the above two systems, the nucleation period for the TPAOH-SiO2-H2O-ethanol system was longer than that for the TPAOH-TEOS-H2O system. This was presumably due to the fact that the colloidal silica particles needed to depolymerize to reach a supersaturation concentration in order for nucleation and crystal growth to occur. Also, it was found that irrespective of silica sources, the vast majority of nucleation occurred during an induction period before linear crystal growth started. The two-stage synthesis method could also be used to produce particularly small colloidal crystals of TPA-siliclaite-1 with reduced synthesis times and high yields. Using this method involves starting a synthesis at a lower temperature and ending the synthesis at a higher temperature. After determining the nucleation stage, an elevated temperature can be used to accelerate the crystal growth and reach higher equilibrium yields controlled by the final temperature. The effects of temperature, dilution and alkalinity on the synthesis were studied to optimize syntheses. The effect of aging on the kinetics and mechanism for crystallization of colloidal TPA-silicalite-1 with varying silica source was also investigated with the two-stage synthesis procedure. With the TEOS silica source, aging for up to 15 days at room temperature had no significant effect on the nucleation and crystallization at a low synthesis temperature. Whereas with amorphous silica, aging caused the nucleation kinetics to become increasingly similar to those for syntheses with TEOS. Thus, with sufficient aging of more economical amorphous silica sources, the properties of the final products approached that with the more exotic TEOS silica source, viz., small colloidal crystals with a narrow crystal size distribution.
School:Luleå tekniska universitet
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2000