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Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Scented Rice

by KUMAR, YADAVENDRA, MS

Abstract (Summary)
The association among yield components, their direct and indirect influences on grain yield was estimated in 40 diverse genotypes of scented rice including traditional landraces, high yielding varieties /advanced lines and two standards check varieties IR-28 and CSR-30 under three environments. Significant variations were observed for all characters in genotypes used in the experiment. Grain yield/plant showed strong positive and highly significant association phenotypic levels in all the environments with panicle bearing tillers / plant, harvest-index, biological yield / plant, L / B ratio and significant positive correlation with 1000-grain weight in all environments and pooled level. Path coefficient analysis indicated that harvest index had the highest positive direct effect followed by biological yield / plant and kernel length on grain yield / plant in all environments and pooled level. So the improvement in grain yield would be effective and economical, if the selection is based on these component traits
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Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:B N SINGH

School:Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology

School Location:India

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:Quantitative traits, Association, Path coefficient, Scented rice, Sodisity.

ISBN:0970-0420

Date of Publication:08/18/2011

Document Text (Pages 1-7)

1550 KUMAR ET AL

Environment & Ecology 29 (3B) : 1550—1556, 2011
© Copyright by MKK Publication 2011 ISSN 0970-0420

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Scented Rice
(Oryza sativa L.) under Sodicity

YADAVENDRA KUMAR, B. N. SINGH, O. P. VERMA, SHWETA TRIPATHI
AND D. K. DWIVED1
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding

1

Department of Plant Molecular Biology & Genetics Engineering, N. D. University of
Agriculture & Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad 224229, India
E-mail : shuklay2008@gmail.com
Abstract

The association among yield components, their direct and indirect influences on grain yield was
estimated in 40 diverse genotypes of scented rice including traditional landraces, high yielding varieties /
advanced lines and two standards check varieties IR-28 and CSR-30 under three environments. Significant
variations were observed for all characters in genotypes used in the experiment. Grain yield/plant showed
strong positive and highly significant association phenotypic levels in all the environments with panicle
bearing tillers / plant, harvest-index, biological yield / plant, L / B ratio and significant positive correlation
with 1000-grain weight in all environments and pooled level. Path coefficient analysis indicated that
harvest index had the highest positive direct effect followed by biological yield / plant and kernel length on
grain yield / plant in all environments and pooled level. So the improvement in grain yield would be
effective and economical, if the selection is based on these component traits.
Key words : Quantitative traits, Association, Path coefficient, Scented rice, Sodisity.

Aromatic rice constitutes a small but special
group of rice which is considered best in quality and
fetches much higher price than high quality non-aromatic
rice in International market. Scented rice with
and aroma and flavor is extremely popular in India,
Pakistan and Middle East and is becoming popular in
Europe as well. Export price for scented rice in these
areas generate more than twice of non-scented long
grain rice. Besides, their importance, pace of improvement
of this category has been rather slow. Aromatic
rice emits specific aroma in the fields at the time of
flowering, at harvesting in storage, during milling,
cooking and eating (1). The biochemical basis of
aroma was identified as 2-acety 1- pyroline and more
than 100 other volatile compounds. Considering cross
compatibility of scented rice with high yielding nonaromatic
rices and expression of yield and quality
contributing traits with consistency in performance
under heterogeneous environments, it is imperative
to study selection criteria and approaches for screen
out best genotypes. Therefore, information on nature
and magnitude of correlations among yield and
its contributing characters is pre-requisite for success
of breeding programme. The path analysis helps
in determining the forces governing the correlation
and thus provides a tool for selection of better genotypes.
The present investigation was therefore undertaken
to determine the direct and indirect effects
of different traits on yield and to know the associated
performance of the characters for productive improvements
of genotypes unique to three diverse ecosystems.
Methods

The materials for the present investigation were
comprised of 40 genotypes of scented rice collected
from different part of the country including two standards
(checks) varieties viz., IR28 and CSR30 for salinity
susceptible and resistant, respectively. These
were grown in Randomized Complete Block Design
with three replications during kharif 2008 under three
environments viz., normal condition (E

1

: pH = 8.00,
EC = 0.24, ESP = 24.5), saline condition (E

2

pH = 9.2,
EC = 0.38, ESP = 44.5) and alkali condition (E

3

: pH =
10.1, EC = 0.57, ESP = 52.6) at Narendra Deva University
of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj,
Faizabad (UP) India. Genotypes were planted in three-


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KUMAR ET AL

1551

Table 1. Phenotypic correlation coefficient between different characters over environment in scented rice *, **Significant
at 5 and !% probability levels, respectively.
Days to Panicle 1000-
50% Plant bearing No. of Spikelet grain
Environ- flow- height tillers Spikelet grains fertility weight
Characters ment ering (cm) plant panicle panicle (%) (g)
Days to 50% E

1

0.294 – 0.268 0.468** 0.480** 0.039 – 0.377*
flowering E

2

0.325* – 0.203 0.460** 0.487** 0.145 – 0.364*
E

3

0.352* 0.123 0.392* 0.380* 0.076 – 0.301
Pooled 0.387* – 0.130 0.464** 0.494** 0.121 – 0.346*
Plant height (cm) E

1

– 0.315* 0.264 0.308* 0.160 – 0.291
E

2

– 0.203 0.287 0.369* 0.332* – 0.196
E

3

– 0.032 0.066 0.121 0.059 – 0.123
Pooled – 0.276 0.226 0.279 0.210 – 0.248
Panicle bearing E

1

– 0.163 – 0.164 – 0.036 0.326*
tillers/plant E

2

– 0.188 – 0.169 0.036 0.226
E

3

– 0.094 – 0.156 – 0.148 0.333*
Pooled – 0.162 – 0.171 – 0.022 0.283
No. of grains E

1

0.960** – 0.038 – 0.543**
panicle E

2

0.951** 0.034 – 0.532**
E

3

0.877** 0.022 – 0.449**
Pooled 0.963** – 0.006 – 0.533**
Spikelet fertility E

1

0.239 – 0..537**
(%) E

2

0.333* – 0.528**
E

3

0.475** – 0.427**
Pooled 0.263 – 0.539**
1000-grain weight E

1

– 0.055
(g) E

2

– 0.100
E

3

– 0.065
Pooled – 0.082
Kernel length E

1

(mm) E

2

E

3

Pooled
Kernel width E

1

(mm) E

2

E

3

Pooled
L/B ratio E

1

E

2

E

3

Pooled
Biological E

1

yield/plant (g) E

2

E

3

Pooled
Harvest index E

1

(%) E

2

E

3

Pooled
Table 1. Continued.
Kernel Kernel Biologi- Harvest Grain
Environ- length width L/B cal yield/ index yield/
Characters ment (mm) (mm) ratio plant (g) (%) plant
Days to 50% E

1

– 0.324* – 0.451** – 0.142 0.343 – 0.386* – 0.025


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1552 KUMAR ET AL

Table 1. Continued.
Kernel Kernel Biologi- Harvest Grain
Environ- length width L/B cal yield index yield/
Characters ment (mm) (mm) ratio plant (g) (%) plant
flowering E

2

– 0.322* – 0.438** – 0.087 0.373* – 0.320* 0.041
E

3

– 0.300 – 0.367* – 0.097 0.387* – 0.270 0.032
Pooled –0.319* – 0.425 – 0.111 0.386* – 0.352* 0.015
Plant height (cm) E

1

– 0.194 – 0.177 – 0.123 0.142 – 0.565** – 0.337*
E

2

– 0.102 – 0.157 – 0.037 0.252 – 0.474** – 0.162
E

3

– 0.143 – 0.255 – 0.019 0.383* – 0.481** – 0.160
Pooled –0.167 – 0.226 – 0.068 0.285 – 0.577** – 0.259
Panicle bearing E

1

0.430** 0.117 0.383* 0.472** 0.502** 0.734**
tillers/plant E

2

0.351* 0.104 0.290 0.472** 0.436** 0.704**
E

3

0.414** 0.004 0.391* 0.439** 0.348* 0.591**
Pooled 0.426** 0.106 0.372* 0.475** 0.516** 0.759**
Spikelet/panicle E

1

– 0.580** – 0.217 – 0.477** 0.369* – 0.354* – 0.004
E

2

– 0.598** – 0.167 – 0.472** 0.312 – 0.374* – 0.052
E

3

– 0.545** – 0.192 – 0.401** 0.446** – 0.303 – 0.003
Pooled –0.596** – 0.193 – 0.471** 0.379* – 0.387* – 0.037
No. of grains/ E

1

– 0.590** – 0.194 – 0.500** 0.399** – 0.376* 0.010
panicle E

2

– 0.597** – 0.195 – 0.465** 0.367* – 0.375* – 0.005
E

3

– 0.492** – 0.168 – 0.366* 0.443** – 0.135 0.142
Pooled –0.606** – 0.191 – 0.486** 0.398** – 0.403** – 0.032
Spikelet fertility E

1

– 0.110 0.074 – 0.148 0.114 – 0.092 0.038
(%) E

2

– 0.125 – 0.093 – 0.094 0.214 – 0.056 0.137
E

3

– 0.019 – 0.002 – 0.018 0.086 0.299 0.311
Pooled – 0.112 – 0.005 – 0.120 – 0.097 – 0.070 0.030
1000-grain E

1

0.907** 0.355* 0.743** – 0.001 0.449** 0.354*
weight (g) E

2

0.866** 0.419** 0.623** – 0.004 0.376* 0.303
E

3

0.889** 0.234 0.721** – 0.002 0.387* 0.343*
Pooled 0.896** 0.365* 0.700** – 0.008 0.447** 0.362*
Kernel length E

1

0.177 0.911** 0.021 0.565** 0.447**
(mm) E

2

0.163 0.873** 0.020 0.524** 0.420**
E

3

0.165 0.870** – 0.005 0.522** 0.447**
Pooled 0.171 0.887** 0.012 0.567** 0.461**
Kernel width E

1

– 0.240 – 0.148 – 0.069 – 0.130
(mm) E

2

– 0.332* – 0.135 – 0.115 – 0.155
E

3

– 0.336* – 0.178 0.009 – 0.082
Pooled – 0.299 – 0.153 – 0.065 – 0.132
L/B ratio E

1

0.080 0.593** 0.497**
E

2

0.095 0.555** 0.479**
E

3

0.093 0.501** 0.475**
Pooled 0.090 0.581** 0.510**
Biological yield/ E

1

– 0.110 0.663**
plant (g) E

2

– 0.125 0.677**
E

3

– 0.099 0.532**
Pooled – 0.131 0.628**
Harvest index E

1

0.664**
(%) E

2

0.635**
E

3

0.780**
Pooled 0.683**

rows of 5 m length with row to row and plant to plant
spacing of 20 cm and 15 cm, respectively. All recommended
agro-techniques were followed to raise a
healthy crop.

Observations on ten randomly selected plants
per genotypes in each replication of all the three environments
were recorded on different characters viz.,
daysto 50% flowering, plant height (cm), panicle bearing
tillers/plant, spikelets / panicle, grains/panicle,
spikelet fertility (%), 1000-grains weight (g), kernel


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KUMAR ET AL

1553

Table 2. Direct (digonal bold) and indirect effect of 12 characters on grain yield/plant at phenotypic level in scented rice.
Bold values indicate direct effect. Residual factor + 0.0075 (E

1

), 0.0097 (E

2

), 0.0123 (E

3

) and 0.0098 (Pooled).
Panicle 1000-
Days to Plant bearing No. of Spikelet grain
Environ- 50% height tillers/ Spikelet/ grains fertility weight
Characters ment flowering (cm) plant panicle panicle (%) (g)
Days to 50% E

1

0.032 – 0.006 – 0.005 – 0.124 0.129 – 0.002 – 0.007
flowering E

2

0.017 – 0.010 – 0.010 – 0.007 0.021 0.001 – 0.014
E

3

0.040 0.002 0.004 0.002 – 0.010 0.002 – 0.010
Pooled –0.009 0.006 – 0.012 – 1.279 1.431 – 0.093 – 0.038
Plant height E

1

0.009 – 0.020 – 0.006 – 0.073 0.083 – 0.009 – 0.005
(cm) E

2

– 0.005 – 0.031 – 0.010 – 0.005 0.016 0.001 – 0.008
E

3

0.014 0.006 – 0.001 0.000 – 0.003 0.001 – 0.004
Pooled –0.003 0.017 – 0.026 – 0.621 0.807 – 0.161 – 0.027
Panicle bearing E

1

– 0.009 0.006 0.006 0.041 – 0.044 0.002 0.006
tillers/plant E

2

– 0.003 0.006 0.049 0.003 – 0.007 0.000 0.009
E

3

0.005 – 0.000 0.033 – 0.000 0.004 – 0.003 0.010
Pooled 0.001 – 0.005 0.095 0.446 – 0.494 0.017 0.031
Spikelet/panicle E

1

0.015 – 0.005 – 0.006 – 0.265 0.257 0.002 – 0.009
E

2

0.008 – 0.009 – 0.010 – 0.016 0.041 0.000 – 0.021
E

3

0.016 0.000 – 0.003 0.006 – 0.023 0.000 – 0.014
Pooled – 0.004 0.004 – 0.015 – 2.754 2.787 0.005 – 0.059
No. of grains/ E

1

0.015 – 0.006 – 0.006 – 0.254 0.268 – 0.031 – 0.009
panicle E

2

0.008 – 0.012 – 0.008 – 0.015 0.043 0.001 – 0.021
E

3

0.015 0.001 – 0.005 0.005 0.026 0.011 – 0.013
Pooled – 0.004 0.005 – 0.016 – 2.652 2.894 – 0.202 – 0.059
Spikelet fertility E

1

0.001 – 0.003 – 0.001 – 0.010 0.064 – 0.055 0.001
(%) E

2

0.002 – 0.010 0.002 – 0.001 0.014 0.003 – 0.004
E

3

0.003 0.000 – 0.005 0.000 – 0.012 0.023 – 0.002
Pooled –0.001 0.003 – 0.002 0.018 0.762 – 0.768 – 0.009
1000-grain E

1

– 0.012 0.006 0.006 0.144 – 0.144 0.003 0.017
weight (g) E

2

– 0.006 0.006 0.011 0.009 – 0.023 – 0.000 0.039
E

3

– 0.021 – 0.001 0.011 – 0.003 0.011 – 0.002 0.032
Pooled 0.003 – 0.004 0.027 1.469 – 1.560 0.063 0.110
Kernel length E

1

– 0.010 0.004 0.008 0.154 – 0.158 0.006 0.016
(cm) E

2

– 0.005 0.003 0.017 0.010 – 0.026 – 0.001 0.034
E

3

– 0.012 – 0.001 0.014 – 0.003 0.013 – 0.000 0.028
Pooled 0.003 – 0.003 0.041 1.641 – 1.754 0.086 0.099
Kerner width E

1

– 0.014 0.004 0.002 0.057 – 0.052 – 0.004 0.006
(mm) E

2

– 0.007 0.005 0.005 0.003 – 0.008 – 0.000 0.016
E

3

– 0.015 – 0.002 0.000 – 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.007
Pooled 0.004 – 0.004 0.010 0.532 – 0.554 0.004 0.039
L/B ratio E

1

– 0.005 0.003 0.007 0.126 – 0.134 0.008 0.013
E

2

– 0.001 0.001 0.014 0.008 – 0.020 –0.000 0.024
E

3

– 0.004 – 0.000 0.013 – 0.003 0.010 – 0.000 0.023
Pooled 0.001 – 0.001 0.035 1.297 – 1.408 0.092 0.077
Biological yield/ E

1

0.011 – 0.003 0.009 – 0.098 0.107 – 0.006 – 0.000
plant (g) E

2

0.006 – 0.008 0.023 – 0.005 0.016 0.001 – 0.000
E

3

0.016 0.002 0.015 0.003 – 0.012 0.002 – 0.000
Pooled – 0.003 0.005 0.045 – 1.044 1.153 – 0.075 – 0.001
Harvest index E

1

– 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.094 – 0.101 – 0.005 0.008
(%) E

2

– 0.005 0.015 0.021 0.006 – 0.016 – 0.000 0.015
E

3

– 0.010 – 0.003 0.012 – 0.002 0.004 0.070 0.012
Pooled 0.003 – 0.010 0.049 1.067 – 1.165 0.054 0.049


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1554 KUMAR ET AL

Table 2. Continued.
Biolo- Correlagical
tion
Kernel Kernel yield/ Harvest with
Environ- length width L/B plant index grain
Characters ment (mm) (mm) ratio (g) (%) yield
Days to 50% E

1

–0.146 0.074 0.067 0.250 – 0.287 – 0.025
flowering E

2

–0.217 0.145 0.060 0.276 – 0.220 0.041
E

3

–0.116 0.070 0.043 0.232 – 0.227 0.032
Pooled –0.106 0.087 0.050 0.253 – 0.275 0.015
Plant height E

1

– 0.088 0.029 0.058 0.104 – 0.420 – 0.337
(cm) E

2

– 0.069 0.052 0.026 0.186 – 0.326 – 0.162
E

3

– 0.056 0.049 0.008 0.229 – 0.404 – 0.160
Pooled –0.055 0.046 0.031 0.186 0.451 – 0.259
Panicle bearing E

1

0.195 – 0.019 – 0.181 0.345 0.373 0.734
tillers/plant E

2

– 0.236 – 0.034 – 0.201 0.349 0.300 0.704
E

3

0.160 – 0.001 – 0.173 0.263 0.292 0.591
Pooled 0.141 – 0.022 – 0.167 0.311 0.403 0.759
Spikelet/panicle E

1

– 0.263 0.036 0.226 0.269 – 0.263 – 0.004
E

2

– 0.403 0.055 0.328 0.230 – 0.257 – 0.052
E

3

– 0.212 0.037 0.177 0.267 – 0.255 – 0.003
Pooled –0.198 0.039 0.212 0.248 – 0.303 – 0.037
No. of grains/ E

1

– 0.270 0.032 0.236 0.291 – 0.279 0.010
panicle E

2

– 0.403 0.065 0.324 0.270 – 0.258 – 0.005
E

3

– 0.191 0.032 0.162 0.265 – 0.113 0.142
Pooled –0.201 0.039 0.219 0.261 – 0.315 – 0.032
Spikelet fertility E

1

– 0.050 – 0.012 0.070 0.083 – 0.068 0.038
(%) E

2

– 0.084 0.031 0.065 0.157 – 0.039 0.137
E

3

– 0.008 0.000 0.008 0.051 0.252 0.311
Pooled –0.037 0.001 0.054 0.064 – 0.055 0.030
1000-grain E

1

0.410 – 0.058 – 0.351 – 0.001 0.333 0.354
weight (g) E

2

0.583 – 0.139 – 0.434 – 0.002 0.259 0.303
E

3

0.346 – 0.045 – 0.319 – 0.001 0.325 0.343
Pooled 0.297 – 0.072 – 0.316 – 0.005 0.350 0.362
Kernel length E

1

0.452 – 0.029 – 0.431 0.015 0.420 0.447
(mm) E

2

0.674 – 0.054 – 0.608 0.015 0.360 0.420
E

3

0.389 – 0.031 – 0.384 – 0.003 0.440 0.447
Pooled 0.331 – 0.035 – 0.399 0.008 0.443 0.461
Kernel width E

1

0.080 – 0.164 0.114 – 0.108 – 0.051 – 0.130
(mm) E

2

0.110 – 0.332 0.232 – 0.100 – 0.079 – 0.155
E

3

0.064 – 0.190 0.148 – 0.106 0.007 –0.082
Pooled 0.057 – 0.204 0.135 – 0.100 – 0.051 – 0.132
L/B ratio E

1

0.412 0.039 – 0.473 0.059 0.441 0.497
E

2

0.588 0.111 – 0.697 0.070 0.381 0.479
E

3

0.338 0.064 – 0.442 0.057 0.421 0.475
Pooled 0.294 0.061 – 0.451 0.059 0.454 0.510
Biological yield/ E

1

0.009 0.024 – 0.038 0.729 – 0.081 0.663
plant (g) E

2

0.014 0.045 – 0.066 0.738 – 0.086 0.677
E

3

– 0.002 0.034 – 0.041 0.599 – 0.083 0.532
Pooled 0.004 0.031 – 0.040 0.655 – 0.102 0.628
Harvest index E

1

0.256 0.011 – 0.280 – 0.080 0.742 0.664
(%) E

2

0.353 0.038 – 0.386 – 0.092 0.688 0.635
E

3

0.203 – 0.002 – 0.221 – 0.059 0.841 0.780
Pooled 0.188 0.013 – 0.262 – 0.086 0.782 0.683

length (mm), kernel width (mm), L/B ratio, biological
yield/plant (g), harvest index (%) and grain yield/plant.
The phenotypic correlation coefficient among different
characters was carried out as per procedure sug-


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KUMAR ET AL

1555

gested by Searle (2). The path coefficient analysis
was done as suggested by Dewey and Lu (3).
Results and Discussion

The analysis of variance showed significant differences
among genotypes in respect of all the characters
studied, indicating the presence of considerable
variability in the material. In all E

1

, E

2

and E

3

environments,
the magnitude of correlation coefficient at
phenotypic level was higher than the corresponding
phenotypic levels (Table 1). This indicated that inspite
of a strong inherent association between various characters
studied and the phenotypic expression of the
correlation was lessened under the influenced of environment.
The phenotypic expression of the association
was form a sound base for their practical implication.
Similar results were also reported by
Khedikar et al. (4).

Grain yield / plant showed strong positive and
highly significant association both at phenotypic
and phenotypic levels in all the environments with
panicle bearing tillers/plant, harvest index, biological
yield/plant, L/B ratio and significant positive correlation
with 1000-grain weight in all the environments
and pooled level. The finding seem in conformity with
those of earlier investigators (4—6). Harvest index
exhibited highly significant positive correlation with
L/B ratio, kernel length, panicle bearing tillers/plant
in all the environments and 1000-grain in E

1

environment
and pooled level, whereas, its significant positive
associations was observed in E

2

and E

3

environment
; while days to 50% flowering in E

1

, E

2

and
pooled level depicted significant positive association
to harvest index. These results are in accordance with
earlier reported by Patil and Sarawgi (7). Plant height
showed highly significant and negative association
in all environments and pooled level, and grains/
panicle only at pooled level with harvest index. Days
to 50% flowering, spikelet.panicle and grains panicle
were also observed to have highly significant negatively
correlated with harvest index in E

1

, E

2

environment
and pooled level. L/B ratio exhibited to be highly
significant and positive association with 1000-grain
weight and grains paniclein all environments and
pooled level, while, spike / panicle in E

1

, E

2

environment
and pooled level. Its significant and positive
correlation was also observed with panicle bearing
tillers/plant in E

3

environment.

The trait 1000-grain weight exhibited significant
and negative association with spikelets/panicle, number
of grains/panicle in all environments and pooled
level, whereas, panicle bearing tillers/plant depicted
significant positive correlation with 1000-grain
weight. Days to 50% flowering exhibited significant
and negative association with 1000-grain weight in E

1

and pooled level. Spikelet fertility exhibited highly
significant and positive association with grains/
panicle in E

1

and E

2

. Spikelet / panicle showed highly
significant and positive correlation with days to 50%
flowering in all environments and pooled level. This
is in agreement with Ramkrishnan et al. (5).

In all the environments, traits like panicle bearing
tillers/plant, spikelet/panicle, grains / panicle,
spikelet fertility and 1000-grain weight were the most
important traits correlated with yield and yield contributing
traits. Thus, the genetic improvement in yield
was highly correlated with direction and magnitude
of these yield contributing traits.

The direct and indirect effects of different characters
on grain yield/plant were worked out, using
path coefficient values at phenotypic level (Table 2).
Harvest-index had the highest positive direct effect
followed by biological yield / plant and kernel length
on grain yield / plant in all environments and pooled
level. This suggests a true relationship between these
traits with grain yield plant and direct selection for
these traits would be rewarding for yield improvement.
Thus, the selection pressure on these traits may
lead to an overall increase in yield. These results are
in accordance with earlier reports (4, 8). The high positive
phenotypic correlation between harvest index and
grain yield plant was due to high positive direct effect
of harvest index and high positive indirect effect
via kernel length and kernel width, while negative indirect
effect via L/B ratio and biological yield/plant
was recorded. A high positive correlation between
kernel length and grain yield/plant was mainly due to
high positive direct effect recorded. Another trait
showing high positive correlation between panicle
bearing tillers/plant and grain yield/plant was due to
high positive direct effect of harvest index and biological
yield/plant and low effect of grains / panicle
and spikelets/panicle. This is in agreement with the
results of Yadav et al. (6) and Girolkar et al. (9). The
association of plant height with grain yield/plant in


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1556 KUMAR ET AL
E

1

location is mainly due to high negative direct effect
of harvest index. The high positive direct effect
of grain / panicle was nullified by high negative indirect
effect via spikelets / panicle and harvest index,
kernel length at pooled level leading to negative correlation
with grain yield. It is also interesting to note
that the high negative effect of spikelets/panicle was
mullified with high positive effect of number of grain
/ panicle, L/B ratio and biological yield/plant because
of low association with grain yield at pooled level.
The residual effect i.e. 0.0075, 0.0097, 0.0123 and
0.0098 at E

1

, E

2

and E

3

environments and pooled level,
respectively were of very low magnitude, subjecting
that most of the important component contributing
to grain yield have been estimated in present investigation.

Based on character association and path analysis,
it can be concluded that panicle bearing tillers/
plant, harvest index, biological yield, L/B ratio, kernel
length, 1000-grain weight in all environments and
pooled level applied to be major field contributing
characters and, therefore, due consideration should
be given to improve these traits for yield enhancement
and sustainability. Spikelet fertility (%) and harvest
index showed positive and significant correlation
with seed yield per plant both at phenotypic and
phenotypic levels. Results of path-coefficient analysis
revealed that productive tillers per plant had the
highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed
by harvest index spikelet fertility (%) (10, 11). The
variation in estimates of direct and indirect effects of
traits on grain yield and also correlation among various
components characters in all the environments
and pooled level may be due to the different in activity
of particular set of genes in the three environments.
The selection of genotype on the basis of these
traits in individual environments would certainly lead
to some improvements in grain yield and also assists
in the selection of donors for different breeding pro-
grams in specific environments.

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