Community Capacity and Governance – New Approaches to Development and Evaluation
question about how the people receiving aid feel; the group responded that they feel happy and
relieved because most are poor. I prompted another question about the impact of aid if the
people are perpetually indigent and Mr. Ubasa responded that there is a “need to teach how to
live, not only give.” He also evoked the biblical “teach a man to fish” analogy.
13. Hannah’s Place – Hannah’s Place is an upscale resort hotel on the beach in Barangay
Balaoi. It was recently built and has many amenities, including a restaurant. I posed the
question “How does this type of place make you feel?”. One participant indicated that it means
progress and that “Pagudpud is moving.” Another said that tourists will buy local goods.
Another group member said with pride that it looks like Boracay (a famous resort island in the
14. Things around the community – This series of clips shows different things in the
community, but did not generate much discussion. The clips include a shot of the Kabigan
Farmers and Fishermen Multipurpose Cooperative, a sari-sari general store, sacks of rice, the
mayor having an audience with the people, and the sunset.
15. Pagudpud South Central Elementary School – This part of the video shows the various
activities local children partake in during the school day, as well as the campus of their school. I
questioned why some students were in uniform while others were not and was told that uniforms
are not required. Ms. Tamargo replied “we do not impose uniforms for those who cannot afford
it.” Before the beginning of the school day, the children can be seen cleaning their campus. I
asked the group the meaning of this. They replied that this was part of their training, that a dirty
school was not conducive for learning, and that the school cannot afford janitors. Mr. Ubasa
noted that he is the president of this school’s PTCA and that his children attend this school.
The school day activities begin with the flag raising. The group explained that the
flag is raised everyday to pay respect to Filipino life and spirit. The students say the
pledge and sing the national anthem. Another participant says that Filipinos are
nationalistic with a sense of patriotism. This comment garnered a lot of discussion in
Ilocano. Morning exercises follow the national anthem. The group explains that the
exercises make the children ready for school and teaches them spirit. I prompted the
question “Would you rather substitute it (the morning rituals) for something more
local in origin?” The group then said that it was a presidential decree from the
Department of Education and that in the past it was done entirely in English, but now
it is done in Tagalog. One participant stated that it would be nice if it were in
Ilocano. Another participant then chimed in and said that the students sometimes sing
the provincial march. This comment sparks some of the group members to break out
16. Showing community in Barangay Ligaya – In this clip a group of men can be seen lining
an irrigation canal. One participant explained that this is an example of bayanihan, the cultural
term meaning to work for one another without pay. The group then goes on to explain that the
blocks are being are provided by the municipality, and the people in the barangay provide the
labor. In response to a question about how the project comes about, the group replies that the
local people request the project and after its approval by the LGU the community implements the
17. Building makeshift houses – Here a group of men can be seen hammering the outside of a
house to make some sort of repair. Mr. Ubasa exclaimed that this was the “Ilocano way” and
that this method was used because they have no means to build it permanently.
18. Kubo-kubos – This clip shows a kubo-kubo, the thatched sitting area seen earlier in the
video. The participants explained that there is one kubo-kubo in each situo20for use by anyone in
the situo for any reason; it is often used for meetings. They went on to explain that there is map
in each kubo-kubo showing the situo, including fields and houses. One participant advised that
this is so visitors can locate places in the situo.
19. Daklis (fishermen) – Many people, young and old, men and women, can be seen in this
clip standing on the beach pulling on large ropes attached to a net. I asked the group why the
people were working together; they answered they were working together because two to three
people cannot handle the task by themselves, but through working together it can be easily done.
Another participant remarked that there were some people around and some visitors who were
just curious about the activity. Yet another participant explained that the owner of the net will
decide what share of the catch he will give to those who helped him pull it out.
The camera then pans to a man chopping a log. Mr. Ubasa then explained that he
was chopping up the log for fuel and that it was left on the beach from the typhoon,
making it available to anyone who wished to use it.
Some boats can also be seen in the clip. All of the boats are blue, as this is the
color assigned to the municipality by the department of transportation, decided upon
by the local government and historical tradition. Each municipality has its own color
used for transportation originating in the area so that the Coast Guard can more
readily recognize local vessels. The group also noted that the color shows the identity
of the ships and is used to spot those who are fishing in the area illegally.
The image and the conversation return to the fishermen themselves and the task of
pulling in the net. One participant stated the sometimes the fishermen sing as they are
bringing in the nets, but this group was not. Another participant chimed in that
women and men often go fishing together. The compensation for assistance was
further explained by the group, with those who were rowing boats to move the net
getting double the share of those only standing on shore and pulling the net. One
participant stated that this activity demonstrates the unity and cooperation of the
people in the community. Another participant said that the people in the clip feel
happy because they depend on the sea for their livelihood and with this catch they
will have something to give to their children.
The copradoras, fish vendors, can be seen waiting for the catch on shore. The
group explained that there is an agreement between the owner of the net and the
copradoras. Some pay for the fish upfront and some pay after they have sold the fish.
In the video a man can be seen directing and coordinating the people pulling in the
net. One participant called this man the “commander” and said that he shows the
people with his hands which side of the net needs to be pulled.
20. Selling ice cream – Here a vendor can be seen selling ice cream to some children at a
purok center (similar in function to a kubo-kubo). One member of our group said “ice cream
makes you feel refreshed, but after the calories have burned you are hotter!” Another
participant commented that for children, the taste of ice cream is good and the color is nice.
21. Barangay Hall and the day care center – This clip pans across a Barangay Hall and a day
care center. The says that meetings are held in the hall and the day care, which is a pet project of
the LGU, takes children ages three to five in order to prepare them to enter kindergarten.
20 A situo is a sub-unit within the barangay.
22. Girl Scouts – In this clip, some girls in their Girl Scout uniform can be seen walking
down a barangay road. The group said that the Girl Scouts are a great help to the community
because they conduct programs that are a benefit to all members of the community, such as the
construction of public toilets for visitors in the municipals complex.
23. More palay – This clip starts out by showing another image of palay drying on the side of
the highway. Mr. Ubasa then exclaims “Ilocanos will dry palay anywhere!” The view then
moves on to another kubo-kubo and another ice cream vendor then pans back to the rice. I ask
the group “how do you feel about rice?” The group responds by saying that they feel happy
when they see rice because then “we know we will enough rice to support the community.”
However, one participant noted that “sometimes we have to import rice from other places, but
with a good harvest there is no need.”
24. Classroom – In this clip we can see the school again, this time inside one of the
classrooms. The camera pans up to show that the ceiling is in disrepair. Mr. Ubasa then says
that they do not have enough funds for basic repairs, but even still the children show a desire to
learn. Ms. Tamargo then asks Mr. Ubasa “What is the PTCA doing about that?” To which Mr.
Ubasa responded that the local government cannot fulfill all of the needs of the school.
25. Pipe transporting – This clip shows a group of men manually moving pipes off of a large
truck and onto the ground using wooden boards. One participant said that this shows the unity of
the people, as well as their resourcefulness and a lack of proper equipment such as cranes.
26. School lunchtime and recess – This clip was filmed at the school again, only this time the
children can be seen around the campus running, chatting, and playing games together. There
were some children playing a game of “Chinese Garter” with a rubber band. I then asked the
group how the children knew about the game and if they themselves had played the game as a
child. Ms. Tamargo replied that the school didn’t teach the children how to play the game, but
that they somehow knew. She also stated that she did not play the game when she was in school.
Ms. Montenegro happily stated that she played the game when she was a youth.
27. Basketball – Here a group of young, adult men are seen playing basketball on a makeshift
net affixed to the outside of a house. Mr. Ubasa said that this clip shows that the people of
Pagudpud are “sports-minded” and that they will find any way that they can to play. He again
pointed to their resourcefulness, because they were playing even though they had no real court.
Mr. Ubasa went on to say that basketball helps players to develop and build camaraderie and
cooperation. He also said that the men can play, even if they had a hectic day, which adds to
their relaxation and that basketball helps “youngsters stay away from vices.”
28. Finished canal – The last clip of the video shows the same canal in Ligaya seen earlier in
the video, only this time it is completed. The group says that this was the result of a unified
2.2.3. Community Capacity Analysis of the Video
As with the analysis of the photographs earlier in this chapter, a brief analysis of the SCOR
portrayed in the video will be covered in this sub-section. The clips will be categorized and
discussed in relation to their meaning to the attributes of community capacity.
S: Sense of community – Many of the clips from the video depict aspects of the sense of
community of Pagudpud, particularly related to identity. Clips number 1 (Gaway-gaway dance),
2 (Palay (rice) fields), 4 (The wake), 11 (Kalibaro grotto, “Paraiso ni Anton”), 14 (Things
around the community), 15 (Pagudpud South Central Elementary School – flag raising morning
ritual), 17 (Building makeshift houses – the “Ilocano Way”), 18 (Kubo-kubos – map and
boundaries of community), 19 (Daklis (fishermen) – net pulling activity, boat color, song, fishing
method), 20 (Selling ice cream), 23 (More palay), 26 (School lunchtime and recess), and 27
(Basketball ) are all related to the identity and shared values of the people of Pagudpud. The
aspects of identity discussed in the video were not specifically addressed in the FPQ or IDIs,
making the contribution of the data from the video unique in this respect. Not many aspects of
the video can be associated with the other components of sense of community, such as a shared
C: Commitment – Very little of the video can be perceived as portraying the commitment of
the people in Pagudpud. Clip number 15 (Pagudpud South Central Elementary School) may be
considered, because in the discussion Mr. Ubasa described his participation in the parent-teacher
group at the school and he also describes the commitment of the children to their education,
despite the adverse conditions that may be present at the school. Clip number 16 (Showing
community in Barangay Ligaya) demonstrates the commitment that the residents of that
barangay have for its improvement by showing their labor contribution to the irrigation system
there. The local term bayanihan is representative of local people’s commitment to their
community in Pagudpud. The concept of bayanihan was discovered in the IDIs and FPQs and
was further discussed and refined as a sign of commitment in the video.
O: Ability to set and achieve objectives – Quite a few of the clips in the video are related to
the community’s ability to set and achieve objectives. Clips numbered 3(Kubo-kubo
consultation), 8 (Dying sarakat), 10 (Barangay officials), 11 (Kalibaro grotto, “Paraiso ni
Anton”), 12 (Distribution of relief goods to typhoon victims in Balaoi), 21 (Barangay Hall and
the day care center), and 24 (Classroom) show examples of the government’s objective setting
and achievement. However, it should be noted that clip 24, which shows the school in disrepair,
could be interpreted as negative feedback on the local government’s ability to deliver service
appropriately and meet local objectives and concerns. Clips 8 (Dying sarakat), 13 (Hannah’s
Place), 16 (Showing community in Barangay Ligaya), and 28 (Finished canal) are examples of
members of the community achieving their own objectives. Clip 8 shows the local people
involved in the dying and weaving process contributing to their knowledge through the dying
training, which helps to fulfill their personal objectives of higher skills and potentially a better
income. Much of the response on objectives in the FPQ and IDIs related to the government’s
efforts. However, the video shows the activities of the private citizens and their ability to
achieve objectives, which further demonstrates the usefulness of the video project.
R: Ability to recognize and access resources – It was easy for the group to film some of the
more obvious resources in Pagudpud and through the discussion pride and value was discovered
in some less obvious places as well. Clips displaying the natural and physical resources of the
community are numbers 2 (Palay (rice) fields), 5 (Public market), 7 (Patapat viaduct), and 11
(Kalibaro grotto, “Paraiso ni Anton”). Clips 6 (Tricycles), 8 (Dying sarakat), 9 (Drying palay),
25 (Pipe transporting), and 27 (Basketball) show the human resources of the community, namely
ingenuity and other skills. Many of these same resources had been identified in other parts of the
community capacity assessment, but through the video the importance of palay was emphasized,
as well as the dedicated and persistent characteristics of the local people.
2.2.4. Participatory Video Evaluation Trial Summary
The PVE evaluation contributed visually to the understanding and contextualization of the
concept of community capacity for the participants. Furthermore, many of the themes found in
the other analyses of community capacity (FPQ, IDIs, and PPE) are supported by the PVE, such
as the recognition of local natural resources. However, the cultural importance of rice became
more apparent through the time that was devoted to it in the video. This speaks to the ability of
PVE to provide voice and emphasis better than the FPQ and perhaps even the IDIs, where
respondents have the tendency to merely list resources instead of explain their significance.
Through the video, much more of the identity of the community was discussed and
discovered. This was something that was otherwise difficult to craft questions about in the FPQ
and IDIs, as well as being difficult for respondents to articulate. However, through the video,
important values, local customs, and traditions were easily portrayed.
As with the other analyses, it was difficult to uncover the true commitment of the
community. In the FPQ and IDIs, many respondents merely answered questions related to
commitment and responsibility affirmative, perhaps in an attempt to cast the community in a
positive light. The PVE did provide some insight into the participation of local people in their
community and further solidified the important of the local concept of bayanihan, which had
only been touched upon in other analyses.
The ability to set and achieve objectives was aptly represented in the video and supported the
results from the FPQ and IDIs in showing that the local government often takes the lead and is
very active in providing services to its citizens. However, the PVE showed the activities of local
people outside of the government, such as the hotel in Balaoi, the canal improvement, and
building houses and basketball nets. This helped to better show the kinds of activities that are
being undertaken by community members and the objectives that are important to people.
Overall, the value of the PVE as both a complement to other community capacity analyses
and to provide further insight to the community can be clearly seen. The new information
gathered on the community, and the process of the group, make the PVE an interesting
evaluation method which benefits the community (see discussion later in this chapter).
The participants who remained throughout the duration of the project enjoyed and gained
from their experience. Furthermore, the message of valuing local resources, building community
pride, and providing voice resounded with the participants.
Not all of the participants responded to the questionnaire21, thus limiting the quality and
breadth of feedback. Some of the questionnaires were answered by participants of the public
exhibition. The question of what could be better is not specific enough, often rendering answers
about what could be better in the community instead of the desired response about the project.
However, it can be seen that most respondents enjoyed participating in the project. Ms.
Tamargo stated “I enjoyed watching every bit of the video and understood better the situation of
Pagudpud and felt a sense of pride of being one in the community.” Other respondents
concurred and stated that they enjoyed the “photo taking, adventuring, [and] meeting with God’s
gifts – nature and man.” The group enjoyed viewing and taking the video footage, as well as
interacting with the people in their community and the events and resources there. Mr. Ubasa
specifically commented that he “Enjoyed taking video footage roaming around the community.”
Respondents said they learned about their community, working together with others,
communication skills, and the importance of their local resources and traditions. Mr. Ubasa
commented on what he learned from this project. He said “The primitive way of life is a tradition
21 Only Mr. Ubasa and Ms. Tamargo’s responses were specifically identified.
need not to be neglected but to be preserved as a foundation of development.” Ms. Tamargo
responded “I learned the art of questioning to come up with specific responses. I also learned the
sense of cooperation and camaraderie.”
Participants were encouraged to provide feedback on ways to improve future projects. More
time, organization, assistance, and funds were noted. Ms. Tamargo said that she would have
liked even more shots of the community and its people, while Mr. Ubasa would have liked more
time and organization, and another respondent said that more funds for the project were needed.
2.3. Public Exhibition
The public exhibition was the culmination of both the
photo and video projects. It served to complete the policy management cycle in relation to evaluation by
allowing for public feedback and comment on the evaluation, as well as providing a forum through which the
group participants can solidify the concepts of community capacity that they learned through the process and
make strides in terms of their leadership development. Exhibiting the photos also served as a way to bring
the evaluation and the community capacity building potential to a larger portion of the community through
promoting dialogue between those that attend the exhibition (Bleiker & Kay, 2007, p. 157; Harper, 2001, p.
Technically, according to the design of the evaluations, the public exhibition is a part, the
final stage, of either a PPE or a PVE. However, for clarification because the trial cases were run
separately, but the public exhibition was held jointly, the public exhibition is discussed here
separate from the trial cases.
2.3.1. Public Exhibition Preparation
On October 4, after the PVE group’s review of the video at the residence of the mayor, the
mayor and I discussed the arrangements for the public exhibition. We decided to hold the
exhibition in the people’s center, a large, open building in the municipal complex that is typically
used for sports or performances. We also agreed to gather some boards for the photos and the
projection screen for the video, which the mayor would provide from municipal supplies. Then,
we discussed who would be invited to the exhibition. Local high school journalism and
leadership groups, as well as some barangay officials and the BHWs were invited. The mayor’s
assistant in charge of tourism was assigned to assist with the preparations. Mayor M. Sales then
drafted a communication in English to be sent to those invited to the exhibition and had it
translated into Ilocano by another assistant. Another assistant delivered the communication to
the group leaders via motorbike that night and the following day. In the end, between 100 and
200 people were invited to the exhibition; however, due to the rush of the invitation, it was hard
to estimate how many would actually show up.
Mayor M. Sales and the local government staff assisted with preparing the center for the
presentation including donating the space, chairs, projector, tables, exhibition boards, and
snacks. The venue was large, so there was plenty of space. On one side I set up three boards
and posted the photos from the PPE on them. I put a table in the middle of those boards with the
questionnaires. On the other side, the screen and the chairs were set up to view the video, and a
public address system and podium were placed in front of the chairs.
2.3.2. Actual Process of the Public Exhibition
The exhibition was held on October 6, 2008. The meeting
was convened at the Municipal People’s Center near Municipal Hall. The exhibition was slated to begin after
lunch and by about 2:00 PM approximately 150 people had gathered for the event. Due to my quasiparticipation
and my emphasis on preserving the true nature of the engagement and equipment limitations, I
was unable to audibly or visually document the entire exhibition. However, I took notes on what I observed.
Ms. Montenegro took notes to document the occasion as well, particularly recording the discussion in Ilocano
for my benefit. This section is a reflection of these documentations.
People chatted with one another as they arrived, looked over the photographs, took the
questionnaires, and then found their seats for the video presentation. The video presentation was
prefaced with a prayer, an introduction by a local government staff, a message from the mayor
urging people to voice their opinions for the betterment of Pagudpud, and a brief introduction of
the concepts of action research and community capacity by me that were similar to the
preliminary presentations that I gave to the PPE and PVE groups. This was an important part of
the video presentation, as it is another cycle in the concept-driven evaluation and it is necessary
for the new participants to gain the knowledge and awareness of those concepts in the same way
that the small group participants did.
The photograph group was part of the audience for the video presentation and they
participated accordingly. During the video presentation, the video group22 took the microphone
The same participants that came to the video viewing on October 4 with the addition of Mr. Lanuo.
to describe the images in much the same way as they did in the meeting that they first viewed the
video. Ms. Tamargo took the lead narrating the video, incorporating her own views and those
that were discussed in the earlier video group meetings into her presentation. Notably all
members of the video group took turns with the microphone, narrating, voicing their opinions,
and eliciting responses from the audience. They demonstrated their leadership in this way. Ms.
Viola even led everyone in singing the fishermen’s song during clip number 19 (Daklis
The presentation and dialogue were conducted in English or Ilocano, depending on the
comfort of the speaker. The high school students were often eager to exercise their English
abilities, while the older audience participants tended to use Ilocano. Although the responses
were largely positive instead of critical, all involved seemed to enjoy and value their contribution
and my interest in their thoughts.
The video group members also posed questions to the
audience, and another microphone was available for the viewers to also make their contribution to the
discussion. I took an observational role during this process, sometimes encouraging various video group
members to take the microphone in response to personal conversations that we were having in regards to the
Much discussion was focused on the clip showing the rice harvest. One exhibition
participant used the term bayanihan to describe the way that people work together for the rice
harvest. Other comments focused on the pride of using traditional harvesting methods to
produce a crop that is so valuable to them. The rice clip (2) also shows a carabao (cow) and
some exhibition participants described the importance of the carabao as symbolizing hard work
and loyalty, being “man’s best friend” and pollution free, and showing that poverty is not
necessarily a hindrance to development, but a challenge for success.
Clip 16, which showed some community members building a canal, sparked statements on
unity. One exhibition participants commented that there is a need to “build bridges not walls”
In response to clip 17 (Building makeshift houses), one exhibition participant stated there is
“no place like home” and confirmed that repairing homes using any means available is a part of
their local identity. Another participant commented on the house building as well, noting the use
of the local amahaw leaves for the repair was also part of their identity.
A teacher, who had previously been a fisherman, stood up during the clip on fishing and told
his story. He stated that fishing trained him to be more intelligent. In relation to the video clip
he commented “you can see the ingenuity of the Ilocano – the harder the life, the sweeter the
About two-thirds of the way through the video presentation, a snack was distributed and a lot
of the activity of the audience participants dwindled in the later afternoon heat after that.
Additionally, I noted that Mr. Ubasa had a tendency to dominate the microphone and often
sounded as if he were campaigning on behalf of the mayor, which may have led discouraged
Mr. Calventas indicate that he enjoyed the video presentation but was disappointed that the
responses were overtly positive instead of generating critical discussion on ways to improve the
community and move forward. His response may have been related to the ‘campaigning’ of Mr.
Ubasa since Mr. Calventas is openly critical of the mayor. I encouraged him and his students to
take the microphone and initiate a more critical analysis.
Sometimes during the video I shared my experiences and tried to ask questions leading to
critical discussion, but I often didn’t receive any public response to this. Mr. Calventas noticed
my efforts and the failure of the audience to respond as well. I tried to interject as little as
possible, opting instead to let the group lead, but, I did encourage the group to keep the video
moving forward due to its length and to pose some tough questions to pull the exhibition
participants through lulls. My interest and enthusiasm sometimes invigorated the crowd.
After the video was finished, many attendees viewed the photos and filled out the surveys.
Unfortunately, the video presentation was long -- nearly two hours -- so many people were eager
to leave upon its completion, not giving full attention to the photo component of the exhibition.
The attendance of the mayor and the barangay officials at the public exhibition exposed them
to the various opinions and situations that members of their community felt were important, and
they can in turn use this information in their policy making. Mayor M. Sales was pleased with
the results of the project and was impressed with the amount of information that he received
from it, stating to me “this is the kind of participatory tool I was looking for.” He further noted
that he did not have many skills in conducting participatory governance, but that he is interested
in it. He immediately wanted training in this method for local government staff so he could do it
with lots of different groups in Pagudpud.
2.3.3. Public Exhibition Summary
Most of the respondents to the video presentation surveys enjoyed participating in the public
forum. Respondents felt that the video accurately portrayed their local way of life, culture, and
the natural beauty of Pagudpud. One of the free responses indicated this: “The picture on the
video had totally depicted the culture we have!!”
Some respondents made reference to the introductory presentation making reference to
community, community capacity, and information sharing and knowledge. The general tone of
the responses indicate that many of respondents left the exhibition with positive thoughts about
their lives and community, as well as information about areas that they would like to see better
developed. One respondent said, “I think this is an effective tool because in every video it
shows that we should not lose hope to success.” Another respondent spoke to the usefulness of
the PVE “The project will help the youngster to think many more ideas that will make our town
more progressive.” Other responses indicated feelings of pride, being “warm hearted”, and
In the additional comments, many people remarked on areas of their community that they
would like to see more progress, the things they think the local government and the people
should do, as well as the impression that the video had on them. The video impacted one
respondent, particularly eliciting the following quotation in the free response question: “I like
this video because I learn a great lesson in my life and this lesson will serve as my inspiration to
achieve my dream in life.” Another respondent was equally moved: “For me, this project has a
great impact to us, as students and community people. I think the project aims to motivate us
and give more power to us through knowledge gained…”
During the presentation itself, many people in the crowd participated in the public discussion.
However, since many people viewed the questionnaire as going to directly to me, they felt the
need to respond in English, which may have contributed to the low number of respondents.
Most of the respondents to the photo display questionnaire had positive connotations about
the photos and the photo project itself. Only one respondent seemed dissatisfied with the project,
noting particular objection and bad feelings about the photo of the abandoned Bangong Lipuan
Lodge. The respondent lamented, “The money spent to this was from our taxes” and “This
project is useless now. Millions of money was spent to this. So we must have to monitor the
beauty of it [!?!].”
Many respondents saw the relationship between this project and the discussion on the
development of Pagudpud, and the value of their local resources (in terms of human, physical,
and cultural resources). One respondent said “I think this project will help us think more
strategies in improving our community and put us in the foot of success.” Another respondent
stated “Having a project like this may lead for a better community to a higher quality society
through evaluating the geography of a community and its people and even the mother nature.”
Some respondents made reference to their community and one mentioned community
capacity. For example, one response to the question “What so you think about this project?”
was: “This is a very worthy and commendable project to be aware of the importance of
community capacity as an answer of sustainable growth and development.”
Two respondents said that the “Bagong Lipuan Lodge” photo struck them, one admired “The
Role of Waves in a Man’s Life”, one on “The Long Road” and some noted generally yes that the
photos stuck them and a few commented on how they appreciated the beauty and the local
culture that was presented in the photos. Many respondents used the additional comment space
to discuss their feelings in response to the photos and the video, make comments about the
community in general, as well as to add some stories or commentary on individual photos. For
instance, one respondent discussed the importance of farmers: “Our farmers are the backbone of
the masses. Farming is one of the primary source of job in our country especially in out town
Pagudpud. Without our farmers, we don’t have life like this.”
The photos helped exhibition participants to reflect on their own ideas about and experiences
in the community. One respondent discussed the importance of fishing for livelihood. “In the
photos, I suggest that they must take the photos of the fisherman because in Pagudpud, fisherman
is one of the occupation of the people and most of them, this is one of the best features about
Pagudpud without them…” Another respondent added to the story of the mother and child
saying “A mother carrying her baby. The baby is near the heart of her mother, where she feels
the love and care of her mother.” Two respondents discussed sarakat, the material used in mat
Commenting on the impact of the photo exhibition overall, one respondent said:
“The photos makes us interpret about the cultures and livings of Pagudpud. How we live,
how we work hard just to live enough. How we innovate simple things using our minds
just to turn simple things to valuable ones. How we lead and manage the community to
make a more stronger and a more working community.”