Document Text (Pages 221-230) Back to Document

Community Capacity and Governance – New Approaches to Development and Evaluation

by Banyai, Cindy Lyn, PhD

Page 221

4.2.2. Lourdes Farriano

Mrs. Lourdes Farriano is a forty eight year old housewife who has lived in Pagudpud for the
past 33 years with her husband Pepito Roland. Aside from her household duties, Mrs. Farriano
is involved with the women’s club.

Attributes – Mrs. Farriano considers herself similar to other people in the community and she
says she shares with them the activity of household gardening. She says that she does not readily
trust people in the community, but there are no people or groups of people that she is particularly
weary of. Mrs. Farriano says she gets together with people in the community on special
occasions such as birthdays, weddings, and burials.

According to Mrs. Farriano, people are responsible and committed to Pagudpud, but she
notes that the younger generation prefers to go out of the country.

Mrs. Farriano would like to see a potable water system and better street lighting, and she says
that steps are being taken to see her ideas to fruition. She also says that steps toward progress are
being made in the community because people cooperate. In the last two years, Mrs. Farriano
noticed that the barangay woods were established. When asked about the likelihood of change in
Pagudpud, Mrs. Farriano lamented “Politics, there’s too much politicking.”

Mrs. Farriano notes that it is possible to obtain Ilocano products in Pagudpud, such as mats,
pillows, and furniture. Otherwise, Mrs. Farriano plants her food and relies on herself to obtain
the things she and her family needs. For bigger, secondary goods, such as televisions and
motorbikes, Mrs. Farriano says that it is necessary to get them outside of the community.

Agents – Mrs. Farriano did not make any comments in regards to community agents.
Actions – According to Mrs. Farriano, the local government is responsive to the local citizen
if the requests are “good for the whole populace.” In regards to communication, Mrs. Farriano
says that she does not use the internet, further noting that it is difficult for her to access it.
However, she does communicate with people through cell phone and letters. As for local
organizations, Mrs. Farriano points out that the PVP is a local organization that tackles local

Contextual Influences - Mrs. Farriano did not answer many of the questions relating to the
contextual influences on Pagudpud. However, she did say that it is not easy for people to get
around or outside of Pagudpud. She noted that there are public busses and tricycle available for
people, but that she does not use them

4.2.3. Marlita Lagundino

Mrs. Marlita Lagundino is a 32 year-old woman who has resided in Barangay Balaoi for 14
years. She is married to Ronal and has three children Raymond, age 13, Marazin, age 10, and
Reviel, age 4. Mrs. Lagundino is a housekeeper and a mat weaver, and she is involved with the
mat weavers’ association.

Attributes – Mrs. Lagundino says that she is not necessarily in the same position as others in
the community, but that she shares with them the activity of household gardening. She says that
it is not so easy to trust people in Pagudpud and that there are some people that she is wary of,
but she did not specify whom. She meets together with other people in the community only for
special events such as weddings and birthdays.

Mrs. Lagundino states that people in Pagudpud are committed and responsible, but that
people who leave the community earn more, especially the overseas workers.


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She would like to see improvements to the wooded areas and the water system. Mrs.
Lagundino feels that there is some progress being made on these things and that they can be
accomplished through cooperation. In regards to other achievements that she noticed in the last
two years, Mrs. Lagundino specifically noted that the road to her place had been paved.

Easily made goods can be obtained in Pagudpud, according to Mrs. Lagundino. She noted
that you have to work to get other things and that she relies on mostly local goods. Mrs.
Lagundino says that the warm-hearted people are one of the assets of Pagudpud.

Agents – Mrs. Lagundino did not respond to any of the prompts on community agents.
Actions – Mrs. Lagundino thinks that the local government responds appropriately to its
constituents. Otherwise, she did not comment on the actions in Pagudpud.

Contextual Influences - Mrs. Lagundino did not respond to any of the questions on the
contextual influences on Pagudpud.

4.2.4. Warly Manigdig

Mr. Warly Manigdig is a 36 year-old fisherman who has lived in Balaoi, Pagudpud his entire
life. He is married to a woman named Editha and has two children, Eddy, age 10, and
Princedrick, 8 months. Mr. Manigdig is the president of the water system in his community and
also participates in the fisherman’s association.

Attributes – Mr. Manigdig identified the shared vision of Pagudpud as peaceful and
cooperative. A common trait of people in Pagudpud is that they are sharing and cooperative
according to Mr. Manigdig. He says that it is not easy to trust people and that he is cautious of
some people, although he is willing to help people that need it. Mr. Manigdig gathers with
people yearly.

People are committed and reliable in Pagudpud says Mr. Manigdig, but that the youngsters
prefer to look for jobs abroad. Mr. Manigdig participates in barangay activities.

Future objectives that are important to Mr. Manigdig include nicer forests and electricity and
he says that steps are being taken to accomplish these objectives. He says that progress is being
made overall, particularly in barangay development. In the last two years, Mr. Manigdig noticed
that five semi-permanent houses were built in his area. The things that are most likely to be
changed in Pagudpud are the roads and buildings according to Mr. Manigdig.

Local resources in Pagudpud include shell crafts and mat weaving, says Mr. Manigdig. He
also notes that he gets most of his basic goods locally, but that you must go outside of the
municipality to get things like televisions.

Agents – Mr. Manigdig identified only individual agents in Pagudpud. He named the mayor
and the local and barangay officials as important community agents.

Actions – The local administration responds to its citizens appropriately according to Mr.
Manigdig. He says that the local government does consult with the people to make
improvements to the community.

In terms of production of goods and services, Mr. Manigdig said that woven mats can be
bought locally and that they are also sold outside of Pagudpud, along with locally produced
coconuts and fish. Local services that he noted included homestays, restaurants, and hotels.

Mr. Manigdig gets his information from the television, meetings, and other people. He is
most confident of the information that comes from the mayor or other head offices. He said that
he never uses the telephone or the Internet, saying that it is not easy to access these things if you
can’t afford it.


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The agriculture groups focus on local issues, according to Mr. Manigdig. He also points out
that the farmers’ association has made successful changes to the community. He also notes that
the local government does work together with local organizations.

Contextual Influences - Mr. Manigdig says that it is easy to get around Pagudpud without
being scared and that the most popular forms of public transportation include bus, tricycles, and
motorbike. He says that he uses public transportation when the need arises and that it is easy to
get to places of production if there is always transportation available. He says that it is “not bad”
for him to get his products to the market, noting that the roads were usually in good condition.

Mr. Manigdig says that there are seasonal typhoons and sometimes there are high tides. He
generally feels safe in Pagudpud, especially because the barangay is patrolled at night. Mr.
Manigdig feels comfortable with people in Pagudpud and is only weary of aggressive people.

The only people that Mr. Manigdig have noticed going in and out of Pagudpud are the
tourists who come to “see the beauty of the place.” In relation to other people in Pagudpud, Mr.
Manigdig says that he feels a little bit better off than them because he finished high school and
he reads a lot.

Mr. Manigdig said that no groups have any particular advantage over another in Pagudpud.
However, he did name the powerful families as Sales, Garvidas, and Benemeritos.

There have been issues with land grabbing, says Mr. Manigdig, as well as with illegal fishing
and lumber culling in Balaoi.

Special events and historical areas named by Mr. Manigdig include the town fiesta and the
crashed World War II plane, the Stingray, in Cagayan. Other things that people in Pagudpud
find unanimously valuable, according to Mr. Manigdig, include the time since the Sales took
over. Local customs include helping others without pay and being kind to elders, according to
Mr. Manigdig.

People are generally on the same level, says Mr. Manigdig, except the professionals who
have a higher standard of living. He also notes that there are some groups that are noticeably
less well off than others. However, Mr. Manigdig feels that Pagudpud is becoming more
prosperous overall.

Mr. Manigdig feels that organizations in Pagudpud are well organized and have a relatively
stable membership. He also feels that the local administration is largely stable, accountable, and
organized. When asked if he felt the local leaders were capable, Mr. Manigdig said, yes,
specifically citing the mayor. He also said that the LGU acts when they can help people. Mr.
Manigdig says that there is “very good governance” in Pagudpud and that the local leaders are
ethical and are people to be emulated.

Mr. Manigdig says he participates in local and national elections and that he has a good
understanding of his political rights and responsibilities. He said that he has not made a specific
request to the local government, but they have asked his opinion on things.

Institutions that operate locally that were named by Mr. Manigdig include hospitals and
schools. He says that it is easy to obtain documents from the local government if “your papers
are complete.”

4.2.5. Demesthines Ravelo

Mr. Demesthines Ravelo is a 44 year-old furniture maker from Barangay Pancian. He is
married to Anita, 38, and has three children Denorak, 18, Abigail, 17, and Demesthines Jr., 15.
Mr. Ravelo has lived in the community for 35 years and is a member of the furniture makers’


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cooperative. Ms. Linda Viola and I visited the Ravelo family to celebrate the wedding of their
son, Denorak. It was during the wedding festivities that Mr. Ravelo agreed to be interviewed by
Ms. Linda Viola.

Attributes – Mr. Ravelo feels that he is in a similar situation as other people in the
community. He says that people in Pagudpud share the values of unity, thriftiness, and
cooperation. Mr. Ravelo thinks that it is not easy to trust people in Pagudpud and that he is
particularly cautious of people who are against the local administration. He said that he enjoys
getting together with people in the community for occasions such as weddings, baptisms, and

According to Mr. Ravelo, people in Pagudpud are responsible and committed to community
work. He also says that most people “stay put in their barangay.” Mr. Ravelo enjoys
participating in the barangay festival.

To improve the community, Mr. Ravelo would like to see good roads and electricity [lights]
by the road. He said that action is being taken to see these wishes fulfilled, as well as the desires
of the community overall. He also noticed progress in terms of conservation of the forest. In the
last two years, Mr. Ravelo said that houses have been built and there has been improvement in

Mr. Ravelo notes that some of the resources of Pagudpud include tourist spots, green forests,
and the sea. He says that he gets the things he needs by working hard, such as planting more
trees. Mr. Ravelo states that he uses goods from the locality.

Agents - Mr. Ravelo only commented on the network agents in Pagudpud. He pointed out
the network of the overseas workers from Saudi Arabia and the political network that he formed
with Mayor M. Sales through the furniture makers’ cooperative.

Actions – According to Mr. Ravelo, the local government helps people, consults local people
for community improvement, and is likely to finish projects that are initiated. As for goods and
services, Mr. Ravelo says that vegetables are available locally, furniture is made locally and sold
outside of the community, and services such as health and school services are available inside the

Mr. Ravelo communicates with people face to face at gatherings. Otherwise, he does not use
the Internet and says that it is not easy to access it, but he does use cell phones and letters. He
gets the rest of his information from the local government, television, and newspapers and he is
confident of this information.

It was noted earlier that Mr. Ravelo is involved with the furniture makers’ association, which
he says also takes on issues that are relevant to the community. He is also involved in the
Barangay council and other barangay activities and says that the local government works with
local organizations to improve the community.

Contextual Influences - In regards to public transportation, Mr. Ravelo stated that there are
busses and motorbikes available and that he uses them very often. He also notes that the roads
are in good condition most of the time.

Mr. Ravelo says that typical natural disasters in Pagudpud include typhoons and droughts.
As for safety, Mr. Ravelo indicated that there is no crime and he feels safe in the community. He
says that he is comfortable with his neighbors and that he is “equal” to them. Mr. Ravelo did
note that there had been some trouble in the past because of politics and land grabbing. He also
said that the mayor, vice mayor, municipal council members, and barangay officials have an
advantage over other members of the community. OFWs are better off in the community,


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according to Mr. Ravelo, although he feels that the community is becoming more prosperous

Mr. Ravelo also pointed out the Stingray in Cagayan as a significant historical artifact in
Pagudpud. He said that Pagudpud Day on July fifth and Rizal Day are important events in the

Of the organizations that Mr. Ravelo is familiar with, he says that they are well organized
and have a stable membership. He also feels that the local administration is stable, accountable,
and organized and that the local leaders are capable. Mr. Ravelo went on to say that the local
leaders are compassionate and people worthy of admiration.

Mr. Ravelo feels that he has a good understanding of his political rights and he regularly
votes in local and national elections. He did lament that there were many requirements in order
to obtain documents from the LGU.

4.2.6. Marlon Sales

Mr. Marlon Ferdinand T. Sales is the 42 year-old mayor of Pagudpud. Mayor M. Sales is in
the second year of his second term as mayor, which means that he will not be able to run in the
next election. However, he wife is considering running for the position in the next election. He
is married to Emelin Garvida Sales (called Kleng) and they have three children Sean, age 9,
Ylaine, age 6, and Joshua, age 4. He also has another son, Miko, age 13, from a previous
relationship, who does not reside with the family in Pagudpud. He has lived in Pagudpud for 13
years and is involved with the organizations PVP, the Mayor’s League, and the Province of
Ilocos Norte Shooters. The family lives together in a house with an attached work yard and shop
that is owned by the family of Mrs. Sales in Barangay Poblacion Two. I conducted this
interview while at Saud Beach.

Attributes – The vision of the community, according to Mr. Sales, is to have an improved
lifestyle and education. He says that people in Pagudpud have occupation, namely fishing and
farming, in common, as well as culture and values. In terms of trust, Mr. Sales says that it is
moderately easy to trust people, but that people are cautious of politicians. He indicated that he
meets with people frequently and he identifies himself as “Pagudpudian, a resident.”

In relation to the commitment that people have in Pagudpud, Mr. Sales says that some people
are responsible and that more people are committed since the introduction of tourism. He said
that this is because “people are more concerned because having jobs, income will improve their
life.” Mr. Sales is concerned that most profession people leave the community because there are
no jobs.

Mr. Sales would like to see more tourism development to generate employment, as well as to
increase incomes and education. He says that steps are being taken to achieve these ends. In
general, Mr. Sales feels that progress is being made in Pagudpud, but one “can’t always assess
the needs of the community because some people have a ‘wait and see’ attitude and this is part of
the culture.” In the last two years, Mr. Sales noticed that people are more concerned about the
community, but they still need encouragement and to see results in order to continue forward.
Mr. Sales also noted that there is not much action being taken on ideas by community members
and that the government must initiate community change. Overall, he feels that not much is
happening in Pagudpud and that people must work hard because there is not a lot of financial


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Resources in Pagudpud that Mr. Sales commented on include beautiful beaches, scenery,
mining, shell craft, mat weaving, and hospitable and friendly people.

Agents – Mr. Sales described some informal leaders as individual agents in Pagudpud. He
enumerated, Mr. Ubasa as the leader of the PVP, Kleng, as the leader of the tourism committee,
and Joy, a tourism officer. Other agents that Mr. Sales discussed include the farmers’ association
and political networks.

Actions – When asked about the response of the local government, Mr. Sales noted that it
was not always possible to respond appropriately because there needs must be prioritized due to
limited financial resources. He is quoted as saying “you can’t give everything.” Mr. Sales also
was not entirely optimistic about project completion in the community; saying that completion
depends on funding, meaning that projects must sometimes be undertaken in phases. However,
he says that the projects are useful to the community because they are requested by the
community. When there are problems, Mr. Sales says that he would like more feedback from the
community to solve them, so he is trying to institute a community based monitoring system.

In regards to goods and services, Mr. Sales noted that some agricultural products, shell crafts,
and mats were sold outside of Pagudpud. When asked about a local organization that was
helping the community, Mr. Sales responded that the Kabigan Multipurpose Cooperative was
one. He said that the cooperative uses the fees to provide credit to their members, which can be
paid back at a later date. He gave the example of loaning money to a farmer for fertilizer that the
farmer can pay back after the harvest. Mr. Sales also mentioned some other organizations that
work with the local government including the PVP, the BHWs, and the farmers’ cooperative.

Contextual Influences - To get products to market, Mr. Sales says that people in Pagudpud
have to hire transportation, but that this can be done somewhat easily. He did note, however,
that the fact that everything must be transported by land creates some difficulty for people in
Pagudpud, but that the roads are generally adequate.

Mr. Sales says that there are typhoons every year and earthquakes as well. A major change
in land use noted by Mr. Sales includes the change of some coastal land for tourist use. Mr.
Sales went on to say that the previous leaders were land robbers, which lead to some grievances
over land. However, he says that the community overall is very stable and that there is little
crime. However, Mr. Sales did say that people were moving in, mostly for business. Mr. Sales
says that he is generally comfortable with his neighbors, but that there are some people he is
cautious of.

According to Mr. Sales, food, clothes and cars must be purchased outside of Pagudpud.
Special events of note to Mr. Sales include Rizal Day and the coastal clean up in September. Mr.
Sales says that there is not a noticeable difference between groups of people because there is
widespread poverty, 70% of the community according to him, particularly among farmers.
However, he does feel that the community is becoming more prosperous, but that all local
industries were suffering.

As for organizations, Mr. Sales said that some of them have good organization and stable
memberships. He does not feel that the local government is yet stable due to limited financial
resources, but he does think that it is accountable and organized. He only moderately feels that
local leaders are capable and that they are limited by financial capacity.

Mr. Sales participates in every local and national election and says that he understands his
legal rights moderately well. When asked how involved he is in local politics, he responded
“I’m the mayor! So, very.” Mr. Sales says that it is moderately easy to get documents from
Municipal Hall and that it is easier than before. He feels that he wants the leaders of local


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organizations and the government to do better, but that overall they are ethical and people to be

4.2.7. Edimar Ubasa

Mr. Edimar Ubasa is 38 years-old and has lived in Pagudpud all of his life. He is married
and has two small children and resides in Barangay Tarrag with them. Currently, he has no
official position in the community, but previously he had been a Municipal Council member and
a market inspector. His civic activities include being the President of the PVP, and a member of
Alpha Phi Omega International, the Association of Ilocano Writers in Ilocos Norte, and Editor in
Chief of Ariwanas, the municipal public paper.

Attributes – Mr. Ubasa identifies the common goal of Pagudpud as “aiming for a community
with peace loving people with respect because Pagudpud is a tourist destination.” He goes on to
say that the daily living condition is improving because of respect. He also noted that the overall
goal of the PVP is to make Pagudpud sustainable and progressive. Commonalities among people
in Pagudpud include being peace-loving, hospitable, industrious, and law-abiding according to
Mr. Ubasa. Mr. Ubasa says that sometime it is easy to trust people in the community because
there is no crime and that there is no one in particular that he is weary of. He gives the example
of tricycle drivers returning belongings to their owners to support his claims. Mr. Ubasa
identifies himself as an Ilocano and an Aglipian (a type of Catholic) and he says that others in the
community share this identity.

Mr. Ubasa says that people in Pagudpud are responsible and cooperative, as well being
committed what is around them. He also says that some people leave the community, but that
interest in staying in the community is increasing. Mr. Ubasa is very involved in the
community, stating that he is involved with helping development progress, cleanup activities,
especially on shore and in the water, and the campaign against illegal activities.

Mr. Ubasa would like to see full development of the tourist facilities because it will increase
the standard of living in the community. He says that measures to see his objectives completed
are being taken by the PVP and the local government to convince investors to come to the area.
He also notes that each barangay is involved in barangay development. Overall progress is being
made on community objectives, according to Mr. Ubasa. In the last two years, Mr. Ubasa says
that he has noticed an increase in entrepreneurial spirit by the people in Pagudpud. Before, he
said, that people “people didn’t mind about business.” Mr. Ubasa says that if he is the one who
speaks of change, then it is likely to happen. However, he is not so confident of talk of change
by others and only by the LGU if the whole plan is implemented.

Things that can be found in Pagudpud, as described by Mr. Ubasa, include the falls,
mountains, river, sea, “water for living”, as well as the still developing products of shells,
coconut, furniture, commercial crops, and fishing. He says that you can buy things locally,
particularly agricultural products, but you have to go outside of the community to buy clothes
and appliances.

Agents – The mayor was identified as an individual community agent by Mr. Ubasa. He also
cited the PVP as an organizational agent, noting that they contribute to the development of the
community and they do it for free. He stated that the Association of Ilocano Writers was a
valuable network agent, mostly because they are a partner in advertising for the blossoming local
tourism industry.


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Actions – Mr. Ubasa thinks that the local government responds appropriately to its
constituents and that it is reliable and useful in terms of project outcomes. He says that the LGU
and the people are “partners” and that Municipal Hall opens freely for public consultations once
a week and officials sometimes go around and ask community members their opinions on

Mats and coconut products from Pagudpud are sold in Laoag and Manila, according to Mr,.
Ubasa. He says that services that can be found in Pagudpud include hotels, janitors, and
housekeepers, mainly for the tourism industry.

Mr. Ubasa says that he often uses the telephone, but never uses email. He notes that it is easy
to access both forms of communication. Mr. Ubasa gets his information by roaming around, and
the files he obtained from when he was a council member, as well as from the television news,
print media, and from reliable networks. He says that he is confident of the information that he
receives because he does not rely on one person, but rather “asks again and gets inputs from
other individuals.”

Two groups that Mr. Ubasa thinks are concerned with community issues include the
women’s’ organization and the periculture center organization, which is for community
development and is organized by the government. An example of a local organization
successfully achieving a goal given by Mr. Ubasa is the farmers’ organization, SANJERA, which
contributed to the campaign for food security through improvements in rice production. Mr.
Ubasa confirmed that the local government does work with organizations active in the

Contextual Influences - Mr. Ubasa sys that you “can go anywhere anytime” from Pagudpud.
He said that he typically uses his motorbike and uses the public bus about twice a month. One
limitation that Mr. Ubasa noticed was that the roads are still being developed. He confirmed that
it is possible to reach places of production through personal or rented transportation, but that this
can be difficult because you have to go to other parts of the province. Additionally,
transportation can be difficult when there is flooding, which can cut people off for one to two
days says Mr. Ubasa.

The land use plan was enacted in 2002 and this means that land use cases are not so
complicated anymore according to Mr. Ubasa. Mr. Ubasa is “proud to say it’s safe in Pagudpud”
and that the “safest place is your hometown.” He says that he is comfortable with his neighbors
and that he is only cautious of “bad people.”

When asked about his standard of living in comparison to others, Mr. Ubasa said “we just
aim for good goal, not for competition” and that he was a “a little higher, a little bit better” off
than others. In general though, Mr. Ubasa feels that there are no groups of people that have a
better situation than others in the community, except he did name some powerful families such
as the Sales, Garvidas, Benemeritos, and Calbans.

Mr. Ubasa noted that there had been problem in the past, in the early 1980s, with land
grabbers and the insurgency. He goes on to say that there were many land issues because of the
land robbers, erroneous land surveys, and with lots that had multiple owners, especially in
Barangay Subec. Mr. Ubasa says that the local government tried to warn people of the problem
with a billboard outside of Municipal Hall. He also lamented that this issue discouraged many

Special events in the community, as noted by Mr. Ubasa, include each barangay’s festival,
Rizal Day, the town fiesta, Foundation Day, the year-end celebration, and the bat festival. He
says that the battle cry of the mayor “prosperity should be shared with all” is a value that is


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unanimously shared in the community. Mr. Ubasa identified the Stingray and another site from
World War II as historically significant to the area. Other local customs, as described by Mr.
Ubasa, include kissing the hands of the elderly after coming from church, and the “Baynihan
spirit,” meaning helping one another for free.

Mr. Ubasa feels that the community is becoming more prosperous, but that there seems to be
“a little” poverty. He notes that the farming and fishing industries are particularly struggling.

Organizations are well organized and have stable memberships according to Mr. Ubasa. He
also thinks that the local government is stable, accountable, and organized. He says that the
mayor is capable, but that “sometimes politics in the Philippines makes them [local leaders]
lazy.” Mr. Ubasa states that obtaining documents in Pagudpud is easy if you follow the

Mr. Ubasa votes in every election and considers himself to be very involved in local political
activity. However, he feels that people sometimes just vote for a name, not which candidate is
going to do a good job. Mr. Ubasa feels that he has a good understanding of his political rights
and responsibilities, and that overall the local leaders are ethical, at least some of them now and
some in the past, and are compassionate and people to be emulated.

4.3. Analysis of Community Capacity
4.3.1. Attributes

Sense of community - The sense of community encompasses a sense of friendliness and
familiarity betwixt the people. A collective identity as Ilocanos exists among the community
members of Pagudpud (Ubasa 2008), but the collective identity is not necessarily specific to
Pagudpud. Often times, people identify themselves with their barangay. This is particularly true
for people who live in barangays farther away from the town center, such as Pasaleng and
Pancian (Calventas, 2008). One of the most common sentiments among the people of Pagudpud
is that they are hospitable people (FPQ, 2008). This sense of hospitality naturally lends itself to
the development of Pagudpud as a tourist destination. Furthermore, there are no strong, overarching
principles, goals, or visions that guide the community yet; but many respondents noted
that there is a shared interest in seeing progress and improvement in Pagudpud through
developing the area into a notable tourist destination (FPQ, 2008; Calventas, 2008; M. Sales,
2008b; Ubasa, 2008), and a desire for peace (Calventas, 2008; Ubasa, 2008) and cooperation
(Manigdig, 2008; Ravelo, 2008). Feelings of trust between people in Pagudpud is mixed, with
most respondents of the IDIs divided, but noting that there are people they are weary of,
particularly politicians (M. Sales, 2008b) and people who are against the administration (Ravelo,

Commitment - Community members are largely committed to the community, but do not
necessarily recognize themselves as stakeholders. This can be seen through the trend and the
positive sentiments of young people towards leaving the community to work overseas (FPQ,
2008; Calventas, 2008; Farriano, 2008; Lagundino, 2008; Manigdig, 2008; Ubasa, 2008).
Although some people send money back or re-settle in Pagudpud later in life, there is no real
sign that these OFWs or balik bayan consider themselves as stakeholders in the community. The
a priori concern of OFWs is income for their immediate family, not necessarily the improvement
of the community. However, some efforts are being made to welcome OFWs back into the
community, as well as to entice them to donate back to the community of Pagudpud. This can be


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seen through the Balik Bayan Night and the crowing of Mr. and Mrs. Balik Bayan (based on the
amount of their donation) every year during the town fiesta.

Ability to set and achieve objectives - Formal leaders such as elected officials can generally
assess the situation of the community and achieve objectives, often through participatory
methods such as the barangay meeting or face to face contact with constituents (Calventas, 2008;
M. Sales, 2008b; Ubasa, 2008), and achieve objectives, as well as be responsive to the needs of
their constituents. However, the speed of this process varies. This is particularly true because
Mayor M. Sales faces political opposition from his Vice-Mayor to more cumbersome
participatory methods of objective-setting (Calventas, 2008), as well as other political
complications. In Pagudpud overall, it seems as though individuals feel free to voice opinions
and demand results from local administrators, organizations, and institutes. However, the results
of these demands depends on the political will of the local administrators (Calventas, 2008;
Farriano, 2008); thus resulting in little faith in change overall (FPQ, 2008).

Ability to recognize and access resources - Although many resources of Pagudpud are being
exploited, they are not necessarily recognized by or utilized for the benefit of the community.
Contemporary use of natural resources and tourist promotion can be seen, but there is minimal
diversification in the recognition of local resources, which can be inferred from the similarity in
responses to questions regarding resources on the FPQ and in the IDIs. Many respondents cited
the natural beauty of the area as a source of their resources (Calventas, 2008; Ravelo, 2008; M.
Sales, 2008b; Ubasa, 2008), as well as hard working and friendly people (FPQ, 2008). However,
it seems as though sectors of human resources may also lie untapped and under-utilized, which is
reflected in the lack of diversity in means of production and services provided in the town, as
well as the propensity for overseas employment migration.

Table 40 provides an overview of the community capacity attributes of Pagudpud. This
information helps to provide a baseline for inquiry into the situation of the community, as well as
point to some potential areas for intervention, such as commitment or ability to recognize and
access resources. A consolidated effort to increase these attributes in Pagudpud may have a
positive effect on the other attributes and lead to overall community improvements.

Table – Attributes of Pagudpud

Attribute Indicator Description

Sense of

Sense of friendliness and familiarity

Collective identity as Ilocanos

Attachment to barangay

View selves as hospitable, kind, hardworking, peaceful, cooperative

Share general vision of progress and improvement in Pagudpud

Commitment Largely committed and responsible

Do not recognize themselves as stakeholders


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