Community Capacity and Governance – New Approaches to Development and Evaluation
knowledge on what are truly participatory methodologies. This allowed me to develop more
participatory measures, which are detailed in Chapter Eight. It can also be noted that there is
room in a comprehensive evaluation for fully participatory methods and evaluator-directed
methods. Their complementary nature will become apparent in this chapter and the next.
This community capacity analysis reflects seventeen months since the first of the projects of
the mayor’s motivational municipal policy, the 10-K Initiative. Therefore, these tables represent
the situation of community capacity in Pagudpud at the beginning of the introduction of
community capacity building strategies. It serves as the starting point from which further
community capacity building strategies can be formulated.
4.1. Focal Point Questionnaires
The Focal Point Questionnaire (FPQ) is designed to gather brief information about
community capacity from a wide variety of community members. The questionnaire is designed
to be quick and provide only a modest amount of information and can thus be defined as an
informal survey (Kumar, 1987, p. 24). The concept behind the FPQ is to gather information
from a broad spectrum of people within the community, as well as having a somewhat random
sampling. A generally random sample ensures a more complete and accurate representation of
the population (Weiss, 1998, p. 164).
To conduct the FPQ, the administrators station themselves at one highly trafficked location
within the community. Examples of community focal points include the central post office,
bank, market, city hall, or a special event of gathering. This method renders a convenience
sampling (Kumar, 1987, p. 25; Weiss, 1998, p. 254).
The focal point that was chosen for this survey was the annual town fiesta, which is a
popularly attended event within the community. The FPQ was administered by two students
(Dane Tabangcay and Bituen Ventura) on the first night of the town fiesta on April 22, 2008 and
by three students (Dane Tabangcay, Bituen Ventura, and Jurinda Acesta) and Mrs. Linda Viola
on the farmers and fishers’ night of the town fiesta on April 25, 2008.
The questionnaire administrators were briefed as to the purpose of the questionnaire, as well
as in techniques of administration. Special consideration was made to ensure the understanding
of the English terms and to clarify the related local terms, as well as the intention of each
question. The administrators were further instructed to be careful to not lead respondents to
desired responses and to report answers as accurately and succinctly as possible. This was
particularly important because interviewers often edit the answers to open-ended questions
(Kumar, 1990, p. 12). Additionally, administrators were urged to look for patterned responses
and frequently used local terms. The administrators introduced the survey as a part of my study
on the community of Pagupud and also introduced themselves.
The FPQ is written in English, but the administrators translated and clarified the questions in
the local language of Ilocano (Kumar, 1990, p. 10). Although the questions are related to
specific criteria and components of community capacity, they were presented to the respondents
randomly. Furthermore, the questions were open-ended to promote spontaneity, genuine
responses, and to allow respondents the opportunity to tell their own story (Kumar, 1990, p. 11).
The FPQ was administered orally with the administrators writing the answers on the FPQ
question sheets. This was done to ensure the clarity of the responses, and to facilitate the
understanding and intention of the questions, as well as to reach as many demographics of people
within Pagudpud, including those who were illiterate or unable to speak English. The
respondents could remain anonymous if they so chose, however, if the respondent was interested,
their contact information was collected to identify potential candidates for in-depth interviews.
Although the nature of the FPQ renders quantitative data, the questions are open-ended to
illicit responses that are more qualitative in nature. This was done to be consistent with the
qualitative nature of the overall case study, but to also provide some base data for the analysis of
community capacity that became the groundwork for the latter truly qualitative photo and video
evaluations described in Chapter Eight.
There are some limitations to using this method of data gathering that should be
acknowledged. Due to the small sample size and length of the survey, the results do not allow
for elaborate statistical analysis, credibility may be an issue and the results are not generalizeable
(Kumar, 1990, p. 6). However, since this survey was conducted as part of a case study, there is
no intention to generalize the results. The objective for the survey was to attain a general
understanding of the community capacity in the area. Furthermore, since the bulk of the
interview data for the case study came from key informants, particularly those acquainted the
mayor; there was concern that the information gathered would be tainted by elite bias (Madey,
1982, p. 231). In order to obtain data that would counterbalance this bias, the FPQ was designed
Coding presents another limitation to this method. It is understood that open-ended questions
are difficult to code (Kumar, 1990, p. 11). However, since the purpose of this survey is to
provide a general understanding of the community capacity of Pagudpud, this limitation is noted
and accepted. Effort has been taken to ensure that the coding categories and the way that the
data has been inserted into them is a true representation of the respondents’ voice (Weiss, 1998,
p.168). Furthermore, the qualitative assessments of community capacity of the photo and video
evaluations will complement and further explain the situation; thus reducing the significance of
the coding errors.
The tables below depict the basic demographic breakdown of the respondents of the
Pagudpud FPQ. Table 29 demonstrates the breakdown of male and female respondents across
the various age brackets.
Table - FPQ gender and age breakdown
Age Group Male Female Total
Under 18 2 3 5
18 – 24 6 4 10
25- 49 9 14 23
50 and up 8 7 15
Totals 25 28 53
The survey administrators were asked to question an array of Pagudpud residents, including
those from various age brackets. 28.3 % of the respondents are ages 24 and under, 43.4% are
ages 25-49, and 28.3% are above 50 years old. This is a reasonable distribution of ages across
the population. Additionally, with a breakdown of 25 men and 28 women, it can be said that the
findings of this survey are reasonably gender balanced.
The next table, Table 29, describes the various occupations of the respondents in relation to
Table - FPQ occupation breakdown
Occupation Male Female Total
Civil 1 4 5
Farmer 8 0 8
Fisher 6 0 6
Handicrafts 0 2 2
Manual Laborer 2 0 2
Manufacturing 1 0 1
No answer 2 2 4
Religious Work 1 0 1
Retired professional 0 2 2
Service Industry 1 7 8
Student 3 4 7
Unemployed 0 3 3
Vendor 0 3 3
The respondents represent diverse occupations across the municipality with a heavy
concentration in the most prevalent occupations of fishing, farming, and the service industry.
Interestingly, all of the respondents who identified themselves as farmers were men, while a
majority of service industry workers were women, suggesting a possible household dichotomy.
Table 30 shows the number of respondents from each of the municipality’s barangays.
Table - FPQ breakdown by barangay
Poblacion 1 5
Poblacion 2 4
The most densely populated barangays in Pagudpud are those closest to the plaza and
Municipal Hall, which are Poblacion 1 and Poblacion 2 (SEP, 2006). Ligaya and Saud are the
adjacent barangays to Poblacion 1 and Poblacion 2, and also have high population
concentrations. The results of the survey reflect these population centers with 37.7% of the
respondents. Seven respondents hailed from Balaoi, which is a resort area that is also home to a
significant amount of fishers whom may have been attracted by the fiesta’s farmer and fishers’
night. The high amount of respondents from Pasaleng, five, can also be explained by the draw of
the town fiesta’s farmers and fishers’ night considering these are the primary occupations in that
barangay. Overall, the distribution of respondents across the barangays is relatively
In order to obtain information about the community capacity attributes in Pagudpud, the
indicators examined in the FPQ are presented in Table 31. These indicators are based off the
expansion of the concept of community based on the Chaskin framework (see also Miyoshi &
Stenning, 2008). This indicator list is not an exhaustive list of indicators related to the attributes
of community capacity, rather these are the specific ones addressed by the FPQ. The questions
that correspond to each indicator can be found in the last column. The related responses to these
questions, and all FPQ questions, can be found in the appendix.
Table - FPQ attribute indicators
Community Indicators Questions
Overall goal/vision Is there a shared vision of the people of
Pagudpud? What is it?
Shared sense of identity What are some things that people in
Pagudpud have in common?
Commitment Responsibility taken for community situation Do people in Pagudpud take
responsibility for the things that happen
Members recognize themselves as stakeholders Do people in Pagudpud generally
pursue interests in Pagudpud or do they
feel they need to go outside of
Ability to set and
Ability to recognize
Progress made towards goals
Some past objectives achieved
Variety of types of resources
Access to resources
If someone speaks of change in
Pagudpud, how likely are things to
Is Pagupud a place where things get
What are the assets of Pagudpud?
How easy is it for you to get what you
need in Pagudpud?
Similar to the attributes, the FPQ tried to ascertain which community agents were present in
Pagudpud. Table 32 shows the various indicators for the community agents and the questions
used to obtain this information in the FPQ. These indicators are generated from the description
of social agents as described by Chaskin and colleagues (2001). The questions to obtain the
information related to the community agents are straightforward and directly related to the
Table - FPQ agent indicators
Individual • Formal leaders in government, businesses,
organizations, or movements
• Informal leaders (e.g. people of reverence, clout, or
high civic standing)
Organizations • Established groups (e.g. social organizations,
commercial associations, religious groups, agerelated
groups, government sponsored
• Informal civil society organizations (e.g. recreation
leagues, neighborhood constellations)
• Government agencies
• Educational institutes
Networks • Interpersonal networks (through families and
• Organizational networks
• Political networks
• Business networks
Who gets things done in
What organizations are
important in Pagudpud?
Who (person or
organization, inside or
outside of Pagudpud) can
you go to to get something
The various categories of community actions are descriptive in nature and some
accompanying indicators can be found in Table 33, as well as the corresponding questions that
were administered in the FPQ. Similar to the attributes, and agents, the community actions have
been expanded upon the parameters described by the Chaskin Framework (see also Miyoshi &
Stenning, 2008). The table below only lists the indicators relevant to the FPQ.
Table - FPQ actions indicators
Community Action Indicators Relevant Questions
Governance; Planning • Local administrative functions What kinds of things has
and Decision-making the local government done
Production of Goods • Locally made goods for local markets
and Services • Basic services provided locally
• Production of secondary (beyond basic) goods
Communication • Various modes of interpersonal communication
• Technology-based communication
• Public modes of mass communication
Organization and • Development of local groups to serve local
Advocacy needs and issues
• Issue-based groups and communications
What kinds of things can
you get in Pagudpud?
Where do you get most of
your information from?
Do you participate in any
organizations? If so,
There are eleven important contextual influences identified as a part of the A-A-A, each with
multiple indicators. Considering this, it was not prudent to incorporate questions on each
contextual influence into the FPQ. However, it was necessary to gather some general
information about the situation in Pagudpud that might otherwise affect its community capacity.
Therefore, the following questions were incorporated into the survey to address the contextual
• What are the best things about Pagudpud?
• What could be better in Pagudpud?
These questions, in particular, are intentionally vague and open-ended in an attempt to elicit
information from the respondents on the general atmosphere in Pagudpud or any other item that
might otherwise not be addressed in the survey. Table 34 shows the contextual influences and
their corresponding indicators that were used in coding the responses to these two questions.
This abridged table is based off the conditioning influences described by Chaskin and colleagues
(2001) and the findings from my earlier research related to community capacity in Indonesia (see
Table - FPQ contextual influences indicators
Contextual Influence Criteria
Location • Hard infrastructure
Space and Security • Prevalence of crime
• Notion of security
Residential Stability • Comfort community members feel with one another
• Trust betwixt community members
Economics • Relative level of income
• Progression of economic growth
• Vulnerable facets of local economy
Political Stability, • Administrative stability
Accountability, and • Officials’ leadership capability
4.1.1. Focal Point Questionnaire Results
There is some sense of community in Pagudpud. 72% of the responses11 in relation to the
overall goal or vision of the people reported statements related to progress, tourism, or a better
way of life. Two respondents stated their goal was for Pagudpud to be well known in the world,
most likely for tourism as another six responses indicated. One respondent shared his vision “for
every Pagudpudian to have a sustainable and stable living and a way to prosperity and progress.”
This is a bold vision and expresses a very common sentiment among Pagudpud residents.
Some respondents provided more than one answer to the questions, so the analysis is based on the total numbers
of responses and may not directly represent the number of respondents.
The second indicator of a shared sense of identity is also present in Pagudpud. 81% of the
responses indicated that hospitality, friendliness, and cooperation were traits that people in
Pagudpud shared. While most of the respondents provided only personality traits to describe
their identity, the consistency of the answers shows that these are widespread values held by
community members and are important parts of their sense of community. However, 13.8% of
the responses were related to work, which is another factor in the identity of Pagudpud
Commitment describes the responsibility that community members take for their situation, as
well as their ability to recognize themselves as stakeholders and these were two of the indicators
that the FPQ assessed. 96.5% of the responses indicated that people were responsible in
Pagudpud and 92.2% said people were committed. However, it should be noted that answers on
commitment were self reported with many people wanting to make a positive impression on the
surveyors. Therefore these figures may not accurately reflect the level of commitment in
It was difficult to ask a question directly related to whether or not community members saw
themselves as stakeholders, mostly due to the academic jargon and confounds with selfreporting.
Therefore, establishing if people felt it was important to stay in Pagudpud for the
long-term was another way to identify if people were really investing themselves in the
community as stakeholders. 66% of the responses indicate that people in Pagudpud do not see
themselves as stakeholders because they wish to leave to seek “greener pastures” as 32 responses
directly noted. Contradicting the earlier overly positive responses on the commitment in
Pagudpud, these results indicate a weakness in the community capacity attribute of commitment.
Understanding the community’s ability to set and achieve objectives is difficult as well. In
fact, when asked about change and the likelihood of success, most of the respondents, 57.9%, did
not give an answer at all. However, the remaining responses indicated a heavy reliance on the
local government, 28.6% of given responses, to achieve objectives and there was little faith in
their ability to make progress in a timely fashion, 57.1% of given responses.
Furthermore, on achieving objectives, 87.5% of the responses show that people feel
Pagudpud is a place where “things get done.” However, it should be noted that this question was
confusing for the respondents, as reported by the survey administrators. This could be due in
part to the intentional vagueness, so as not to steer respondents into answering about the actions
of the government alone. This confusion would support the contention that the community is
very reliant on the direction of the LGU to set and achieve objectives.
There is a general sentiment that it is difficult to get things inside Pagudpud with 44.9% of
responses indicating that obtaining resources is not easy. One respondent said “there are times
when I can’t get what I need.” Of those who responded that it was easy to get resources in
Pagudpud, their response was then qualified with “if you cooperate” or “if you have patience.”
This further reinforces the notion that life in Pagudpud, a developing community, can be
The responses to the question on resources are related both to the access of indigenous and
external resources. A total 82 responses were gathered when respondents were asked about the
resources of Pagudpud. The responses can be categorized as natural resources, 58% of
responses, or human resources, 29.6%. This indicates that there is an awareness of the
community some of the variety of resources at their disposal, but many of the answers were
related to tourism, 40.7% (promoted by the LGU), and not necessarily related to other productive
capabilities; although it should be noted that seven responses were related to locally produced
products such as rice and coconut products.
Regarding individual community agents in Pagudpud, the results from the FPQ indicate that
people feel that ordinary citizens, 35.8%, and local officials, 47.8%, are active in the community.
The findings from this question support early evidence that people in Pagudpud rely on the LGU
to provide direction for activities and development in the municipality. However, there is strong
support that people are also active as individuals.
There were 76 responses to the question on important organizations in Pagudpud, further
reinforcing that there is bright and vibrant civic life in the community. However, although there
is a general awareness and broad participation (see the section on community actions) in
organizations, the nature of these activities is not evident from the survey. What can be noted is
that 78.9% of the responses on important organizations were localized versions of larger, often
national or regional, organizations. This indicates that local organizations, which represented
only 14.5% of the responses, are not as popular, active, or well-known in Pagudpud.
Gaining an understanding of networks with a simple survey was not an easy task. However,
there was one network that became quite evident through the FPQ, the local political network.
When responding to the question about who they would go to get something they need, 85.3% of
the responses indicated local officials. Many of these officials were named specifically, such as
Mayor M. Sales (28 responses), Vice Mayor Matilde Sales (5 responses), or Barangay Captain
Cagawad (4 responses). Another eight responses indicated affiliations with provincial and
national politicians. There were no answers that indicate networks of any other nature.
The FPQ responses to the first category of community actions, governance,
planning, and decision-making, indicate that there is recognition of the actions and accomplishments of the
local government. 68.1% of the responses identified governance actions that have been undertaken, such as
building farm to market roads (4 responses), refurbishing the municipal plaza complex (7 responses),
supplying irrigation (10 responses), the town fiesta activities (7 responses), tourism promotion (2 responses),
and activities related to the waste removal project (3 responses). This supports the contention that the LGU
is the most noticeably productive faction in Pagudpud.
There is a large amount of products produced in Pagudpud, nearly all of which is for local
consumption or the local tourist market. All of the respondents identified products produced and
available in Pagudpud, most of which are marine, 41.7% of responses, or agricultural products,
51.5% of responses. There were no responses about services available in the community or
about secondary goods. This data can be interpreted as support for the assertion that Pagudpud
has an underdeveloped economy.
Interestingly, this question evoked the most responses in the local language of Ilocano,
including palay – rice, niyog – coconut, bawang – onion, and ikamen – rattan mat. This suggests
that there is pride in the local products and production.
The most prevalent mode of communication, in terms of information gathering, in Pagudpud
comes from the national mass media, with 63.9% of the responses. Otherwise, people rely on
one another, through interpersonal communication, to get information, 20.6%. Of those relying
on interpersonal communication for their information, 40% of them rely on information from
local officials. There was only one response relating to the local media, which indicated that the
respondent accessed the public information posted at the municipal hall. With most people
relying on the national media there is some potential for local issues to go un-noticed in
Pagudpud. This is supported by the evidence that only one respondent commented on local
information posted at Municipal Hall and the rest of the respondents rely mostly on interpersonal
communication. These factors suggest that people in Pagudpud may be susceptible to
information control or manipulation, which may relate to their poverty in economic terms.
The last category of actions analyzed in the FPQ, organization and advocacy, seeks to
understand the level of participation in the community. 73.6% of the respondents indicated that
they were involved in an organization. The survey indicates that most of the activity, 64.3% of
responses indicating organizational involvement, is in localized national organizations. These
organizations are usually local groups that are issue or demographic-based and can be found in
nearly all municipalities in the Philippines. It should be noted, however, that there is little
network activity between the various organizations. Most of the groups have strong connections
with the national government, such as SANJERA (farmers’ organization) and the Ministry of
Agriculture. Only 23.8% of activity is in local organizations, and only 4.8% in advocacy
organizations. Another 11.9% of organizational activity is in religious organizations, which are
another form of localized national or international organizations. The small amount of activity in
truly local organizations indicates that the civil society in Pagudpud is undeveloped, which is a
contextual influence that may have a negative impact on community capacity.
188.8.131.52. Contextual Influences
Only two questions were asked to briefly gauge the scope of the various contextual
influences in Pagudpud: 1) What are the best things about Pagudpud? and 2) What could be
better in Pagudpud? A variety of responses were given to these questions, but a few themes
arose. Many people felt that their natural resources were the best things in their community;
59.2% of the responses were related to natural resources.
Two categories of contextual influences were remarked upon in this question, space and
security and residential stability. 18.4% of the responses indicated positive sentiments to the
atmosphere, peacefulness, and security found in the community. One respondent used the local
term “liank kin talna,” meaning peace and order, in response to the question. 11.7% of the
responses were related to residential stability, indicating trust and comfort between community
members. Another notable response to this question came from Ms. Dianne Shayne Faylogna of
Balaoi. She said that the best things about Pagudpud are “the beautiful spots that God has
created in this place and the hospitable Pagudpudians.”