Document Text (Pages 191-200) Back to Document

Community Capacity and Governance – New Approaches to Development and Evaluation

by Banyai, Cindy Lyn, PhD


Page 191

Pagudpud’s municipal policy is explored in this section. The policy

initiatives of Pagudpud’s mayor, Marlon Sales, is outlined and explained in the context of community
capacity building strategies. The policy structure initiated by Mayor M. Sales is being analyzed because his
leadership style is crucial to making progress in the community (Laslo & Judd, 2006, p. 1252).

Mayor M. Sales9 began his tenure in 2004 and is not a native to the municipality, but rather is a part of the

neighboring political family in Bangui. Although many mayors in the Philippines have a reputation for
entrenched politics and a “do-nothing, this-is-the-way-it-is” attitude, Mayor M. Sales has set himself apart as
someone who is truly concerned about the development of Pagudpud and the improvement of life there, even
winning a national award for public service in early 2008.

Mayor M. Sales began his term with good intentions, but he had trouble formulating effective
projects, enacting proactive policies, and motivating his constituents to become involved (M.
Sales, 2008a; M. Sales, 2008b; E. Sales, 2007). These issues are typical of those that plague all
conscientious administrators. Although Mayor M. Sales is competent, he received some
assistance with his administrative concerns through the JICA Training Course for Municipal
Mayors: One Village One Product Movement10 that he attended in Oita, Japan during October
2006.

When Mayor M. Sales was first asked what he gained from the JICA training, it was difficult
for him to answer specifically (M. Sales, 2007). However, as the mayor began to take ownership
of the lessons and concepts from the training, the methods of interaction with his constituents
and his policies began to reflect the administrative capacity that he gained. This can be seen
through the emphasis that Mayor M. Sales puts on gathering information from the people to
formulate projects. For instance, every Monday is peoples’ day at Municipal Hall, where
anyone can have an audience with the mayor. The construction of the farm to market roads at
the request of the people is also another example (FPQ, 2008; Viola, 2007). The mayor asserts
that his local policy, the 10-K Initiative, which was introduced in December 2007, is based on
the concept of community capacity (M. Sales, 2008c).

9

The mayor’s brother, Teteng Sales had been the previous mayor; thus the current mayor will be referred to as M.
Sales.

10
1

The JICA training course involved using cases of successful rural revitalization in Oita, many of which were
affiliated with the OVOP movement. The case studies found in Chapter Five are part of the training course study
tours.

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The 10-K Initiative is a mode through which community capacity can be built as local policy
is directed through the considerations of the people. The 10-Ks are derived from the local
language in Pagudpud, Ilocano, and can be seen in Table 19. The English translations that are
provided here are the translations that were rendered by an assistant of Mayor M. Sales during
the filming of a portion of the multimedia presentation for the promotion of the 10-K Initiative
on September 27, 2008 and they reflect the meaning of the words to those who are involved in
cultivating and promoting the policy. These broad ideas are used to generally frame the mayor’s
policy, which largely focuses on the development of the tourism industry in Pagudpud.
Furthermore, “support the K initiatives” has become a slogan for community members to get
behind various development and social activities (M. Sales, 2008c).

Ilocano
Kammayet
Kinatalna
Kinaurnas

Table - 10-K Initiative

English
Unity
Peace
Peace

Kinapundo

Kinalintag

Kinadalus

Kinasatun-at

Kinaspasnet

Kinarong-ay

Kinaragsak
Truth

Justice

Cleanliness

Health

Sincerity

Progress

Joy/happiness

Source: Author

Mayor M. Sales and the Pagudpud LGU construct various projects and programs based
on the 10-K Initiative. Although not every component of the policy structure that is referred to
as a part of the 10-K Initiative contributes to the development of community capacity, many
parts display at least the nascent ideas outlined in the community capacity building strategies.
Tables 20 to 26 outline the local level policy structure in Pagudpud in terms of those parts of the
10-K Initiative that build community capacity. The policy is outlined according to the logic
framework, which is an organizational tool for policy management (JICA, 2004; Razafindrakoto
& Roubaud, 2002).

End Outcomes

Table - Pagudpud Volunteers for Progress (PVP)

Intermediate
Outcomes
Outputs Activities Inputs

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Kammayet – unity
Kinatalna – peace
Kinaurnas – peace
Kinapundo – truth
Kinalintag –
justice
kinarong-ay –
progress

Build community
capacity

Increased
volunteerism

spirit

Organization
to coordinate
volunteer
activities

34 blood
donors
Promotion of

the 10 K
initiatives

Blood Drive

Organize

Pagudpud
Volunteers for

Progress
Association

Red Cross
Blood
Workers,
Public Space

Strategy Type:
Organizational development

Inter-organizational collaboration

Source: Author

The Pagudpud Volunteers for Progress (PVP) organization was conceptualized to help
promote volunteerism and to support the policies of the mayor. The PVP is headed by its
president, Mr. Edimar Ubasa, a former local legislator and construction contractor (Ubasa, 2008;
M. Sales, 2008b). The objectives of the organization are to fortify base support and
understanding of the 10-K Initiative and to conduct community-oriented activities such as the
annual blood drive. The creation of the association is part of the mayor’s policy and can be
considered an organizational development strategy that contributes to community capacity.
Furthermore, the activities that the PVP conducts help to bridge the gap between various
organizations and people within Pagudpud, for example by contacting the Laoag branch of the
Red Cross for the blood drives. This is an example of inter-organizational collaboration, another
community capacity building strategy. Although the PVP can be considered a part of the
development of the community capacity in Pagudpud, its collaboration with local organizations
is minimal at this time. Additionally, its propensity to be seen as merely a political loudspeaker
for the mayor may counteract its effectiveness for true vision setting and community capacity
building.

End
Outcomes
Kinadalus –
cleanliness
Kinasatun-at
– health
kinarong-ay
– progress

Intermediate
Outcomes
Cleaner
municipality

Build community
capacity

Additional

Table - Waste Removal Project

Outputs Activities Inputs

Fertilizer
NGO

Waste
legislation
still not
passed

Organized
organic
fertilizer
NGO

Introduction
of waste

Waste
removal
project

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income source
Garbage
Truck

Promotion

of K
initiatives
separation
legislation

Purchased
garbage truck
with K slogan

Strategy Type:
Organizational development

Community organizing

Source: Author

The waste removal project was one of the first endeavors of Mayor M. Sales, starting in
December 2005 with the waste separation proposal he made to the local legislature (M. Sales
2008c). The project aims at public awareness of trash collection and separation of recyclable
goods and includes components for sustainable organic fertilizer that would be both
economically and environmentally beneficial (M. Sales, 2008a). However, due to political infighting
and a lack of public understanding on the benefits of the program, it has stalled in the
local legislature. Some redeeming components of this project include the organization of the
organic fertilizer NGO and the garbage truck with the slogan supporting the K Initiatives, which
can be considered a community organizing strategy. Although this project is not being as
successfully implemented as it could be, the efforts toward community capacity building can be
seen.

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End

Outcomes
Kammayet –
unity
Kinapundo –
truth
kinaspasnet –
sincerity
kinarong-ay –
progress
kinaragsak –
joy/happiness
Intermediate
Outcomes

Build
community
capacity

Table -10-K Initiative Promotion

Outputs Activities Inputs

Direct
community

vision

Promotion of
the 10 K
initiatives
Multi-media
presentation
of the 10 K
initiatives

Slogan teeshirts

Strategy Type:
Community organizing

Source: Author

The 10-K Initiative promotion is an effort by the mayor to promote a collective vision within
the community of Pagudpud. The promotion includes efforts by the PVP, t-shirts supporting the
10-K Initiative during PVP activities, and the creation of a multimedia presentation to further
explain the initiatives to the public and to appeal to levels of government for support for the local
policy (M. Sales, 2008c). The promotion is somewhat ad hoc, but is incorporated into various
other parts of the mayor’s policy and is clearly visible throughout Pagudpud. This can be
considered a type of basic community organizing because it has the intention of motivating the
people to become active in the opportunities, activities, and projects that are presented as a part
of the 10-K Initiative, as well as fortifying the overall sense of community through the
sentiments of the 10-K.

End
Outcomes
Kinadalus –
cleanliness
Kinasatun-at
– health
kinarong-ay
– progress

Table - Barangay Health Workers (BHW)

Intermediate

Outcomes
Better health in
the barangays
Outputs Activities Inputs

Trained
Barangay
Health
Worker in

each
barangay
Barangay
Health
Worker
Training
Funds and
experts from
Department
of Health

Health
worker
trainers

Strategy Type:
Leadership development

Inter-organizational collaboration

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Source: Author

To help attain the end outcomes of cleanliness, health, and progress, the municipal mayor
helped to recruit new Barangay Health Workers (BWHs) and to secure additional training in first
aid and midwifery from the national government. This kind of training contributes to the human
resource development in the community and empowers people, largely women, to become active
members of the community through the BHW organization and through assisting residents in
their barangay. This training produces a corps of BHWs that embody community leadership
because they have the skills and the willingness to take actions when necessary in their
community. Furthermore, this portion of the policy shows inter-organizational collaboration
between the Pagudpud BHW and the Department of Health, which also contributes to
community capacity, in this case especially in terms of the development of human resources
(leadership development).

End
Outcomes
Kinarong-ay
– progress

Intermediate

Outcomes
Increased tourism

Links between
policy and
livelihood

Table - K Therapists

Outputs Activities Inputs

Group of ‘K’
therapists to
coordinate
with tourism
activities

Promotion
of the 10 K
initiatives
Organization

of ‘K’
therapists
group

Strategy Type:
Leadership development

Inter-organizational collaboration

Source: Author

The K therapists are a group of people who are involved in various tourism activities around
Pagudpud, including the homestay association, the shell craft makers, and other vendors.
Representatives from the various sectors were introduced to the 10-K Initiative and asked to
voice their support for them throughout the community, as well as be the link between the local
tourism operators and the LGU (M. Sales, 2008c). This group was organized in response to the
10-K Initiative to solidify the community vision of being a prominent tourist destination. This
action is a kind of leadership development because it encourages participation and promotes
commitment to the ideals of the 10-K. It is also a form of inter-organizational collaboration
because it brings together several factions of the tourism industry. Interestingly, this is one of
the only portions of the 10-K Initiative that serves to provide collaboration between local groups
in Pagudpud that are on a relatively similar level of governance, as opposed to the other interorganizational
collaborations that were between community-level groups and the national
government agencies.

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End
Outcomes
Kinarong-ay
– progress

Strategy Type:

Intermediate

Outcomes
Better quality and

design of
weavings

Higher income

Table - Training for Weavers

Outputs Activities Inputs

Better
skilled
weavers

Leadership development

Training for
weavers

Inter-organizational collaboration

Funds and
experts from
Department
of Tourism

Organization
of Tourism
Committee

Source: Author

Mat weaving using rattan is a traditional skill that is present in Pagudpud. The mats are
generally for home use and are made for personal consumption. There is, however, great
potential for this skill to be utilized to generate income. This potential was identified by the
Tourism Committee as a resource that can be tapped and enhanced to provide unique local goods
for tourists (Viola, 2007). It was on this basis that the Tourism Committee and the LGU
collaborated with the Department of Tourism to provide training in dying and handbag design for
the local weavers (Viola, 2007). The inter-organizational collaboration between the weavers, the
Tourism Committee, the LGU, and the Department of Tourism is clear, and this training can also
be described as a leadership development strategy in terms of its contribution to local skill
enhancement and the encouragement of participation.

End
Outcomes
Kammayet
– unity
Kinarong-ay
– progress

Strategy Type:

Intermediate

Outcomes
Increased tourism

More tourist
facilities

Increased income
for women and

seniors

Table - Homestays

Outputs Activities Inputs

Establishment
of homestays

Homestay
association

Organizational development

Leadership development

Organization
of homestay
association

Training for
homestay
operators

Inter-organizational collaboration

Funds and
experts from
Department
of Tourism

Coordination
of the
Tourism
Committee

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Source: Author

Due to limited investment in large scale hotel and tourist operations and high demand for
accommodation by tourists, homestays were established in Pagudpud as a means to promote
tourism, as well as to generate income for local people, mainly women and senior citizens, who
rent rooms in their homes to out-of-town guests. The Tourism Committee noted the sizeable
discrepancy between local homes and the standards that tourists expect, so they organized the
homestay operators into an association and coordinated with the Department of Tourism to
provide hospitality training. The Department of Tourism provides accreditation to operators that
complete the training and continually fulfill the Department’s standards. The Homestay
Association also sets standards and monitors compliance (Viola, 2008a). The homestays
contribute to community capacity through the organizational development of the Homestay
Association, leadership development through the training and activities within the association,
and inter-organizational collaboration between the Homestay Association, the Tourism
Committee, the LGU, and the Department of Tourism. This component of the 10-K Initiative
incorporates many aspects of community capacity building and can be considered a model for
program construction that takes community capacity aspects into consideration.

End
Outcomes
Kinalintag –
justice
Kinarong-ay
– progress
Kinaragsak –
joy/happiness

Strategy Type:

Table - Most Outstanding Barangay Evaluation

Intermediate

Outcomes
More information
about conditions
in each barangay

Incentive for

policy
compliance

More community
participation

Outputs Activities Inputs

Trained
evaluators

Completed
program
evaluation

Selection of

Most
Outstanding
Barangay
award

Community organizing

Training of
evaluators

Most
Outstanding
Barangay
Evaluation
Organization

of Most
Outstanding
Barangay
Evaluation

Leadership development

Source: Author

The Most Outstanding Barangay Award is a yearly review of the situation in each of the 16
barangays of Pagudpud. LGU staff train people from each barangay on how to conduct the
household surveys, which provides basic information on the situation in the barangay such as the
number of toilets, births, and deaths (Viola, 2008b). This evaluation is also an opportunity for
each barangay to show the progress they have made on the projects requested and rendered by
the municipality in addition to their own barangay level initiatives (M. Sales, 2008). This

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information is then used to evaluate the overall policy of the municipality, to identify needs and
to create new projects for the following year. Based on the results of the evaluation, an award
for the Most Outstanding Barangay is given to the barangay that has progressed the most and has
been most compliant with municipal policy (M. Sales, 2008). Although the survey itself does
little in the way of actually building community capacity, training local people to administer the
surveys is a form of leadership development and awareness building for those involved.
Furthermore, the use of the evaluation to provide an award for the Most Outstanding Barangay
provides motivation for barangay officials to make improvements in their area and to collaborate
with the LGU to create projects that will meet their needs; thus being a strategy for community
organizing.

Greater community capacity leads to more community outcomes, which in turn leads to
increased community capacity (Miyoshi, 2006; Mendis-Millard & Reed, 2007). Increased levels
of community capacity lead to more sophisticated community activities (Miyoshi & Stenning,
2008) and, therefore, contribute to development and poverty alleviation. Pagudpud has created a
policy structure, the 10-K Initiative, with the vision of creating a thriving tourist destination
without alienating the interests of the community.

What can be seen in the 10-K Initiative is that efforts are being made to incorporate
community capacity building strategies into the policy structure. However, it must be noted that
this overview of Pagudpud’s municipal policy structure in relation to community capacity
building strategies is meant to be illustrative and not necessarily demonstrative in terms of the
results reaped by crafting such policies. This section merely highlights the incorporation of the
lessons on community capacity learned from the mayor’s JICA training into the local policy
structure, in addition to the utilization of the concept of community capacity in formulating local
policy in a developing country.

Great strides have been made in the area of organizational development and also in
preliminary leadership development. Although there are instances of inter-organizational
collaboration, they are largely orchestrated by the LGU between local organizations and the
national government. What can be said at this time is that this policy structure is currently being
implemented and is continually evolving. There is potential that the groundwork for community
capacity building that has been laid can be improved upon.

While the 10-K Initiative provides a sound base through which community capacity can be
built, continued efforts are needed, which should include the introduction of more community
capacity building strategies into the policy structure. There is a general vision in Pagudpud
formulated behind the idea of improvement within the community; the achievement of the goal
of tourism is far from omnipresent within the community (FPQ, 2008). To this effect, more
efforts in community organizing could be incorporated into the policy. The people of Pagudpud
view themselves as largely committed and responsible, but there is little willingness to act as
stakeholders and participate accordingly (FPQ, 2008).

To improve the effectiveness of the policy structure, additional leadership development
strategies could be conceptualized and introduced to further motivate people to take an active
interest in the development of their own community. Increased collaboration between local
organizations could also benefit the commitment of the community, as well as the ability to
recognize and access local and external resources and even set objectives. Due to the widespread
benefits of local inter-organizational collaboration, it must be suggested as the key consideration
here.

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Furthermore, more activities in participatory governance should take place. Mayor M. Sales
orchestrated the policy structure around his vision of where he would like the community to go;
however this may not be consistent with the view that the community itself has. The evidence of
the failed waste removal project speaks to this. With better participation in policy formulation
and evaluation, the policy initiatives can be made more successful and potentially flawed
projects, such as the waste removal project, can be eliminated or retooled.

4. Community Capacity Assessment

This analysis of community capacity is the first attempt to use the A-A-A framework as an
assessment tool. Chapter Two demonstrated the importance of community capacity and Chapter
Three looked at the relevance that it has to governance. Based on these backgrounds, developing
a way to better understand community capacity in context is a logical next step.

Evaluation was chosen as the best way to assess community capacity because without
evaluation of a community’s experience with capacity building, efforts are not likely to be
sustainable (Honadle, 1981, p. 578).

Many authors have recognized the importance of governance assessment to improve policy
performance and to reach community outcomes (see Balassanian, 2006; Gaarder et al., 2003;
Gobar, 1993; Kaufmann et al., 2002). The assessment of community capacity is a form of
governance assessment that focuses on the impacts that policy has on the community at large.

A basic description and conceptualization of the community capacity of Pagudpud can be
rendered by analyzing the data gathered through interviews, surveys, and observations against
the basic parameters of community capacity as outlined by the A-A-A cycle. The analysis here
reflects qualitative statements that were rendered by informants in response to questions on
community capacity. Qualitative measures were chosen because social relations are difficult to
quantify and community impacts of policy are highly defined by social factors (MacIver, 1970,
p. xiii). Although the line of questioning was open-ended and qualitative in nature for the
interviews and surveys, the data gathered from the surveys was coded and turned into a basic
quantitative analysis of community capacity. This quantitative data can help to better portray the
trends in community capacity found in Pagudpud and complements the otherwise strictly
qualitative data (Weiss, 1998, p. 256). It is recognized that statistical measures of capacity are
problematic (Gorgan, 1981, p. 650), which is why the statistics found later in this section
indicate the frequency of coded themes, rather than measures of capacity.

Since there is no single, well-established method to assess community capacity, the A-A-A
framework is offered to guide the process. However, it should be noted that I do not advocate
for a unanimous, specific methodology (Mendis-Millard & Reed, 2007, p. 545), because each
time an assessment of community capacity is commenced it will be highly context-specific and
based on the objectives of the assessment and the capabilities of the implementers.

Furthermore, it should be noted that this analysis of the community capacity of Pagudpud
also represents my journey as an evaluator and researcher. I came to the understanding that
community participation was an important part of community capacity evaluation (Mendis-
Millard & Reed, 2007; Pavey et al., 2007). However, my initial interpretation of participation
was basic and relegated the community members to a merely consultative position. Through my
experience in the field and more intense research on participatory methods, I realized that
participation of stakeholders means more than just asking them questions. The lessons I learned
through the process of conducting the survey and interviews helped to build my foundation of

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