Cleaning of fouled membranes using enzymes from a sulphidogenic bioreactor
Enzyme activities at 200 mg/ml of enzyme concentration were 8.071 IU, 86.71 IU and 789.02 IU for proteases, lipases and ?-glucosidases. The abattoir effluent contained 553 ?g/ml of lipid, 301 ?g/ml of protein, 141 ?g/ml of total carbohydrate, and 0.63 ?g/ml of total reducing sugars. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates fouling polysulphone membranes after a day were removed by 23.4 %, when a dilute enzyme was used. A concentrated enzyme extract of 200 mg/ml was able to remove proteins, lipids and carbohydrates up to 5 days of fouling by 100 %, 82 %, 71 %, 68 % and 76 % respectively. Defouling of dynamically fouled capillary ultrafiltration membranes using sulphidogenic proteases was successful at pH 10, 37°C, within 1 hour. Sulphidogenic proteases activity was 2.1 U/ml and flux Recovery (FR %) was 64. Characterization of fouling revealed that proteins and lipids were major foulants while low concentration of carbohydrates fouled polyethersulphone membranes. Fouling followed standard blocking for 10 minutes in all the membranes; afterwards fouling adopted cake filtration model for membranes with 30 000 MWCO and pore blocking model for membranes with 300 000 MWCO. A concentration of 100 mg/ml of enzyme extract was able to remove fouling from membranes with MWCO of 30 000. Defouling membranes that followed pore blocking model i.e. 300 000 MWCO was not successful due to a mass transfer problem. From the results of defouling of 30 000 and 300 000 MWCO it was concluded that defouling of cake layer fouling (30 000 MWCO) was successful while defouling of pore blocking fouling was unsuccessful due to a mass transfer problem. The ratio of enzymes present in the enzyme extract when calculated based on enzymatic activity for proteases, lipases and ?-glucosidases was 1.1 %, 11 % and 87.9 %. It was hypothesized that apart from proteases, lipases, ? and ?-glucosidases; phosphatases, sulphatases, amonipeptidases etc. from a sulphidogenic bioreactor clean or defoul cake layer fouling by organic foulants and pore blocking fouling provided the mass transfer problem is solved. However, concentration of enzymes from a sulphidogenic bioreactor has not been optimized yet. Other methods of concentrating the enzyme extract can be investigated for example use of organic solvents.
School Location:South Africa
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:biochemistry microbiology biotechnology
Date of Publication:01/01/2004