The Classification of Reading Disability Subtypes and the Efficacy of Hemisphere Specific Stimulation
This study examined the utility of categorizing students with reading difficulties by fluency and error rates and the efficacy of interventions proposed to remediate each type. Forty-eight students with low reading fluency in grades three through six were categorized into three dyslexic subtypes based on Bakker’s (1992, 1994)Balance Model of Reading. Thirty-five participants were identified as M-type dyslexics, who display slow reading with many errors. Thirteen participants were identified as P-type dyslexics, slow reading with few errors. No L-type dyslexics (fast reading with many errors) were identified. Each grade-level group received one of two treatments (Hemisphere Specific Stimulation and repeated partner reading counterbalanced for six weeks. Hemisphere Specific Stimulation (HSS) used a tactile training box to stimulate the targeted hemisphere as indicated in Bakker’s Balance Model of Reading. The students worked in pairs, each participating as a student-examiner (placing letters in the training box) and a student-examinee (manipulating letters with a specified hand to stimulate the opposite hemisphere). The second treatment group received repeated partner reading. Each participant was assessed with AIMSWeb reading fluency (words read correct per minute), reading accuracy (percentage of words read correctly), and reading comprehension probes. The results of this study suggest that both repeated partner reading and HSS produced significant (p <.001)gains in reading fluency and reading comprehension. The HSS procedure produced significant (p <.008) gains in reading accuracy but repeated partner reading did not significantly (p <.092) change a participant’s reading accuracy. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments in reading fluency and reading comprehension. Slow, accurate readers (P-type dyslexics)demonstrated higher gains in reading fluency and reading comprehension than slow, inaccurate readers (M-type dyslexics). M-type dyslexics’, however, displayed significant improvement in their reading accuracy. The results from this study validated Baker’s model and the developmental nature of reading. The results suggest that reading accuracy should be the initial focus of reading intervention. Also, increases in reading fluency as well as increases in reading accuracy produced similar increases in reading comprehension.
School:Indiana University of Pennsylvania
School Location:USA - Pennsylvania
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:bakker s balance model of reading dyslexic subtypes hemisphere stimulation neuropsychological treatment fluency interventions
Date of Publication:05/05/2009