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Cissus verticillata (Vitaceae): Ethnopharmacological information and anatomy of vegetative organs

by de Oliveira, Andréia Barroncas

Abstract (Summary)
Cissus verticillata is popularly known as vegetable insulin and is largely used as antiinflammatory and antidiabetic, among others properties, in popular medicine. Structural investigations together with ethnopharmacological information are crucial for a better understanding of the relationship of therapeutical properties with the forms of medicinal plant utilization. The objective of this work was to gather ethnopharmacological information on Cissus verticillata in the urban area of Manaus (AM) and to characterize anatomically the vegetative organs. The botanical material was collected in the Campus of the Universidade Federal do Amazonas - UFAM (AM). The ethnopharmacological study was carried out in the urban area of the city of Manaus-Am, with market traders that commercialize medicinal plants, through interviews, using questionnaires with semistructuralized and/or open questions. For the anatomical study, root, stem, leaf and tendril samples were collected from 6 C. verticillata plants cultivated in the Campus of the Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Samples of leaf lamina were cleared, dissociated and processed for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) view, following usual methodology. Tissues from roots, stems, leaves and tendrils were embedded in methacrylate resin for sectioning in a rotating microtome, stained with toluidine blue and mounted with synthetic resin. Histological sectionings of fresh samples were subjected to histochemical tests to identify the chemical nature of the secreted compounds. Little is known about the ethnopharmacological aspects of the studied species that is only commercialized in crude form by market traders working with medicinal plants in the urban area of Manaus. Vegetal Insulin is used in the treatment of five illnesses, amongst these the most cited are diabetes, cholesterol and inflammations, being the herbal tea the only form of plant preparation as remedy, made from any part of the vegetative organs except roots. At present, there are two profiles of market traders working with medicinal plants. The first profile is formed by liberal professionals and/or pensioners coming from non-biological areas, who had taken courses enabling them to work with medicinal plants. Market traders form the second profile, with knowledge inherited from parents and/or grandmothers who had already worked with traditional medicine. Anatomical characteristics; secretory idioblasts containing calcium oxalate crystals, crystals embedded in amorphous substances or only amorphous substances are found in the cortex and medulla of all vegetative organs of the studied species. Adventitious root with periderm, originated from subepidermic layer, parenchymatous cortex, evident endoderm, vascular cylinder formed by a continuous ring of xylem and phloem and parenchymatous medulla. Young stem has epidermis with ornamented cuticle that is replaced by periderm in the secondary growth. Cortex is formed by parenchyma, collenchyma and some sclereids, collateral bundles, tylosis and similar event gummosis occurred in the xylem tissue and parenchymatous medulla. Tendrils show structural organization similar to young stem, suggesting stem origin. Leaf petiole shows epidermis with ornamented cuticle, cortex consisting of parenchyma and collenchyma, collateral vascular bundles and parenchymatous medulla. Epidermis of leaf lamina is uniseriate, stomata in both limb surfaces with ornamented cuticle and multicellular tectorial trichomes in the region of ribs and margins, and a multicellular gland in the axil epidermis of the abaxial surface; dorsiventral leaf mesophyll and collateral vascular bundles. The histochemical tests confirmed total polysaccharides (pectin and mucilage) and starch presence in all organs. Phenolic compound (tannin) and lipids (essential oil) are stored in leaf and root idioblasts. This work contributes to taxonomical, pharmacological and phytotherapic studies.
This document abstract is also available in Portuguese.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Maria Silvia de Mendonça Queiroz; João Marcos de Araújo; Luzimar Campos da Silva; Renata Maria Strozi Alves Meira

School:Universidade Federal de Viçosa

School Location:Brazil

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:Vitaceae Plant anatomy Leaf Secretory structures

ISBN:

Date of Publication:03/07/2006

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