Charakterisierung negativ inotroper Substanzen nach Myokardischämie
Autocrine and paracrine functions are increasingly being attributed under physiological and pathophysiological conditions to cardiac structures such as the coronary or endocardial endothelium, the myocardium, and the pericardium as well. Reliable evidence exists to confirm that the heart, through the release of soluble mediators after myocardial ischemia, plays a decisive role in post-ischemic regulation of vasomotion. Less well-known, however, is the significance of mediator-effected cardiac autoregulation in cases of post-ischemic changes of myocardial contractility. This study describes a new negative inotropic substance or substances, NIS, released from isolated hearts after myocardial ischemia. NIS elicits marked cardiodepressive effects on sequentially perfused hearts used as bioassays. In isolated field-stimulated rat cardiomyocytes, NIS reduces, as a function of dose, systolic cell shortening and Ca2+ transients (as detected by confocal laser-scan microscopy). The negative inotropic effect occurs quickly both in isolated hearts as well as in cardiomyocytes, and is reversible. Catecholamines counteract the negative inotropic effect, as a function of ischemia duration. Voltage-clamp investigations on the single-cell level have disclosed that NIS reduces Ca2+ inflow Ica via L-type Ca2+ channels. NIS appears to decrease myocardial contractility and cell shortening through reduction of intracellular systolic Ca2+ concentration, by blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels: and not, say, by Ca2+ desensitization. It has not yet been definitely established by which mechanism NIS blocks Ca2+ inflow. Since NIS modulates neither the tissue level of cGMP and cAMP, nor PKA activity, it is improbable that NIS acts by dephosphorization of sub-units of the L-type Ca2+ channel. The results of this study imply that NIS directly interacts with the Ca2+ channel, perhaps by binding to a channel protein. Although the chemical structure of NIS has not yet been elucidated, there are indications that it is not a protein. The substance(s) is/are stable, heat resistant (up to 56°C), and dialyzable as a molecule with low molecular weight (< 0.5 kDa). It is not yet possible to provide conclusive evaluation of whether NIS acts to damage the myocardium by aggravation of the contractile dysfunction, or whether it exerts cardioprotective action by diminishing myocardial oxygen consumption.
Document Full Text
School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:Kontraktilität negative inotrop Reperfusion contractility ischemia inotropic mediator reperfusion
Date of Publication:04/23/2002