Channel Estimation and Equalization for Cooperative Communication

by Mheidat, Hakam

Abstract (Summary)
The revolutionary concept of space-time coding introduced in the last decade has demonstrated that the deployment of multiple antennas at the transmitter allows for simultaneous increase in throughput and reliability because of the additional degrees of freedom offered by the spatial dimension of the wireless channel. However, the use of antenna arrays is not practical for deployment in some practical scenarios, e. g. , sensor networks, due to space and power limitations.

A new form of realizing transmit diversity has been recently introduced under the name of user cooperation or cooperative diversity. The basic idea behind cooperative diversity rests on the observation that in a wireless environment, the signal transmitted by the source node is overheard by other nodes, which can be defined as "partners" or "relays". The source and its partners can jointly process and transmit their information, creating a "virtual antenna array" and therefore emulating transmit diversity.

Most of the ongoing research efforts in cooperative diversity assume frequency flat channels with perfect channel knowledge. However, in practical scenarios, e. g. broadband wireless networks, these assumptions do not apply. Frequency-selective fading and imperfect channel knowledge should be considered as a more realistic channel model. The development of equalization and channel estimation algorithms play a crucial element in the design of digital receivers as their accuracy determine the overall performance.

This dissertation creates a framework for designing and analyzing various time and frequency domain equalization schemes, i. e. distributed time reversal (D-TR) STBC, distributed single carrier frequency domain (D-SC-FDE) STBC, and distributed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (D-OFDM) STBC schemes, for broadband cooperative communication systems. Exploiting the orthogonally embedded in D-STBCs, we were able to maintain low-decoding complexity for all underlying schemes, thus, making them excellent candidates for practical scenarios, such as multi-media broadband communication systems.

Furthermore, we propose and analyze various non-coherent and channel estimation algorithms to improve the quality and reliability of wireless communication networks. Specifically, we derive a non-coherent decoding rule which can be implemented in practice by a Viterbi-type algorithm. We demonstrate through the derivation of a pairwise error probability expression that the proposed non-coherent detector guarantees full diversity. Although this decoding rule has been derived assuming quasi-static channels, its inherent channel tracking capability allows its deployment over time-varying channels with a promising performance as a sub-optimal solution. As a possible alternative to non-coherent detection, we also investigate the performance of mismatched-coherent receiver, i. e. , coherent detection with imperfect channel estimation. Our performance analysis demonstrates that the mismatched-coherent receiver is able to collect the full diversity as its non-coherent competitor over quasi-static channels.

Finally, we investigate and analyze the effect of multiple antennas deployment at the cooperating terminals assuming different relaying techniques. We derive pairwise error probability expressions quantifying analytically the impact of multiple antenna deployment at the source, relay and/or destination terminals on the diversity order for each of the relaying methods under consideration.

Bibliographical Information:


School:University of Waterloo

School Location:Canada - Ontario

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:electrical computer engineering


Date of Publication:01/01/2006

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